fbpx

Cost Based Cache Replacement and Server Selection of Multimedia proxy for Data hiding Audio —A Review

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Cost Based Cache Replacement and Server Selection of Multimedia proxy for Data hiding Audio A Review

Cost Based Cache Replacement and Server Selection of Multimedia proxy for Data hiding Audio A Review

Dr. A.. Chandrabose 1

Associate .Professor,

Dept of Computer Science Edayathangudy G.S.Pillay Arts & Science College Nagapattinam.

T. Manivannan 2

Research Scholar

Edayathangudy G. S. Pillay Arts & Science Collage, Nagapattinam.

M. Jayakandan3

Research Scholar

Edayathangudy G.S.Pillay Arts & Science Collage, Nagapattinam.

P. Ananthi4

Research Scholar

Edayathangudy G.S.Pillay Arts & Science Collage, Nagapattinam.

Abstract – In this project we present a study of cache replacement for a single server and server selection for multiple servers. We propose a novel replacement algorithm for single-server and a new server-selection policy for multiple servers. Improve the end- to-end performance such as throughput, media quality, and start-up latency. for audio hiding information which uses the technology called as Steganography which is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent its detection.. A message in cipher text may arouse suspicion while an invisible message is not. The conventional way of protecting information was to use a standard symmetric or asymmetric key system in encryption. Steganography can also be used to place a hidden trademark in images, music, and software, a technique referred to as watermarking .Steganography, if however used along with cryptography then the message will become quite secure as far as crypto analytic attack are concerned. Now, if this cipher text is embedded in an image, Audio ,video, voice, etc., it is even more secure. If an encrypted message is intercepted, the interceptor knows the text is an encrypted message. With Steganography, the interceptor may know the object contains a message.

Keywords: Novel replacement algorithmsuch as throughput, media quality, and start-up latency, LSB Algorithm

    1. Client Request the Server

      I. INTRODUCTION

      We are of the belief that the easiest way to keep something from prying eyes is to place it right in front of the person looking for it and make it look as innocuous as possible.

      Everyone has a taste for a certain kind of music. Hence, it is more than likely that the person will have that kind of music on the storage device of his computer. Also, it is quite common case where people share and transfer different music files to one another. If one were able to hide the message can be. Also, transfer of this message can be done quite conveniently without raising any eyebrows.

      Our aim is to come up with a technique of hiding the message in the audio file in such a way, that there would be no perceivable changes in the in the audio file after the message insertion. At the same time, if the message that is to be hidden were encrypted, the level of security would be raised to quite a satisfactory level. Now, even if the hidden message were to be discovered the person trying to get the message would only be able to lay his hands on the encrypted message with no way of being able to decrypt it.

      When the client requests the video streaming, the traffic between the client and remote video server is always rated through the multimedia proxy.

      Thus, the proxy is able to intercept each streaming and cache it in its storage. The multimedia proxy is located at the edge of internet connecting both remote servers and clients.

      First, we should give the client request that is user name and pass word as authentication to the server. If it is verified then it will be connected to the multimedia proxy.

      Figure 1.1Client Request the server

    2. Multimedia Proxy System

      When the client requests the video streaming, the traffic between the client and remote video server is always rated through the multimedia proxy.

      Thus, the proxy is able to intercept each streaming and cache it in its storage. The multimedia proxy is located at the edge of internet connecting both remote servers and clients.

      First, we should give the client request that is user name and pass word as authentication to the server. If it is verified then it will be connected to the multimedia proxy

      Figure 1.2.Multimedia Proxy System

    3. Proxy System

All content for scaleable video are stored at the video servers across Internet to support streaming service for end clients. When the client requests the video streaming, the traffic between the client and remote video server is always routed through the multimedia proxy.The multimedia proxy is located at the edge of Internet connecting both remote servers and end clients

    1. Caching Management Module

      Fig 1.3Fig:1 Proxy server model

      Cost based server selection will select the reliable server among the multiple servers using cost based server selection and send the information about that to cache management.

      From that cache management cache will select the reliable server. In this module we select the server using server selection and send it to cache management.Cost based server selection will select the reliable server among the multiple servers using cost based server selection and send the information about that to cache management.

      From that cache management cache will select the reliable server. In this module we select the server using server selection and send it to cache management.

      Cost based server selection will select the reliable server among the multiple servers using cost based server selection and send the information about that to cache management.

      Figure 2.1 Cost based server selection process

    2. CachingServer Module

      Cost based server selection will select the reliable server among the multiple servers using cost based server selection and send the information about that to cache management. From that cache management cache will select the reliable server. In this module we select the server using server selection and send it to cache management.

    3. Client Response Module

      Fig 2.2 Caching Server

      Cost based server selection will select a reliable server and that server will be cached by the cache management. Cache will select that reliable server among the multiple servers. Cache management will forward the response or selected server to the client.

      In the proxy-server side, the backbone network between proxy and server is a best-effort network, i.e., the network conditions such as bandwidth, packet loss ratio, delay, and jitter vary from time to time. On the proxy-client side, two types of clients access proxy via different network. Internet clients access proxy via LAN, x-DSL, or the like. Since multimedia proxy is very near to the end clients, the network status is rather stable for Internet clients.

      All content for scalable video are stored at the video servers across Internet to support streaming service for end clients. When the client requests the video streaming, the traffic between the client and remote video server is always routed through the multimedia proxy.

    4. Planning Module

The proposed Steganography in its.multimedia proxy is located at theedge of internet connecting both remote servers and end client

.

Figure: 2.4Multimedia proxy

The proposed Steganography in its.multimedia proxy is located at the edge of internet connecting both remote servers and end clientOn the proxy-server side, the backbone network between proxy and server is a bst-effort network, i.e., the network conditions such as bandwidth, packet loss ratio, delay, and jitter vary from time to time. On the proxy-client side, two types of clients access proxy via different network. Internet clients access proxy . Since multimedia proxy is very near to the end clients, the network status is rather stable for Internet clients. Client performance can be increased. Media quality can be improved. Quality files can be retrieved. Efficient server can be accessible.

3.1 Algorithm Design

Figure 3.1 Algorithm design Sender

Figure 3.2 Algorithm design Receiver

IV IMPLEMENTATION

We cache the popular redundant data in the proxy so as to mitigate the computation overhead for the proxy. Since this portion of cache is used to reduce the computation overhead, we call it computation cache. Besides the computation cache, the rest of the cache is served for caching the popular multimedia objects, which is named the data cache.

    1. Schema Design

      Figure 4.1 Schema Design

      Early Start

      Duration

      Early Finish

      Activity

      Late Start

      Slack

      Late Finish

      1. Since there are no overlapping activities in

        this case, the critical path is same as the path shown above. There is also zero slack time due to this reason

      2. OT=Optimistic Time; MT=Most Likely Time; PT= Pessimistic Time. Expected time (ET) = ( Optimistic + 4 x Most likely + Pessimistic ) / 6

Figure 4.1.2 Schema Design

4.2. Data Integrity and Constraints

The implementations for encryption, key generation and key agreement, and Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms. Support for encryption includes symmetric, asymmetric, block, and stream ciphers. The software also supports secure streams and sealed objects.JCE was previously an optional package (extension) to the Java 2 SDK, Standard Edition (J2SDK), versions

1.2.x and 1.3.x. JCE has now been integrated into the J2SDK, v 1.4. JCE provides an implementation of the MD5 with DES-CBC password-based encryption (PBE) algorithm defined in PKCS #5 together with Secret-key factories for bi-directional conversions between opaque DES, Triple DES and PBE key objects and transparent representations of their underlying key material.

Figure 4.2 Data Integrity and Constraints

Figure 4.3 The canonical WAVE file format

4.3 The canonical WAVE format starts with the RIFF header:

0 – 4 ChunkID Contains the letters "RIFF" in ASCII form

4 – 4 ChunkSize 36 + SubChunk2Size, or more precisely:

4 + (8 + SubChunk1Size) + (8 + SubChunk2Size)

This is the size of the rest of the chunk following this number. This is the size of the

entire file in bytes minus 8 bytes for the two fields not included in this count

chunkID and ChunkSize.

8 – 4 Format Contains the letters "WAVE"

The "WAVE" format consists of two subchunks: "fmt " and "data": The "fmt "subchunk describes the sound data's format:

12 – 4 Subchunk1ID Contains the letters "fmt "

16 – 4 Subchunk1Size 16 for PCM. This is the size of the rest of the Subchunk which follows this

number.

20 – 2 Audio format PCM = 1 (i.e. Linear quantization)

Values other than 1 indicate some

form of compression.

22 – 2 Num channels Mono = 1, Stereo = 2, etc.

24 – 4 SampleRate 8000, 44100, etc.

28 – 4 ByteRate = SampleRate * NoChannels* BitsPerSample/8

32 – 2 BlockAlign = NumChannels * BitsPerSample/8

all channels.

The number of bytes for one sample including

34 – 2 BitsPerSample 8 bits = 8, 16 bits = 16, etc.

The "data" subchunk contains the size of the data and the actual sound:

36 – 4 Subchunk2ID Contains the letters "data"

40 – 4 Subchunk2Size = NoSamples * NoChannels* BitsPerSample/8 This is the number of bytes in the data.

You can also think of this as the size of the read of the subchunk following this

number.

44 * Data The actual sound data.

Figure 4.4 Chunk size of channels

As an example, here are the opening 72 bytes of a WAVE file with bytes shown as hexadecimal numbers: 52 49 46 46 24 08 00 00 57 41 56 45 66 6d 74 20 10 00 00 00 01 00 02 00

22 56 00 00 88 58 01 00 04 00 10 00 64 61 74 61 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00

24 17 1e f3 3c 13 3c 14 16 f9 18 f9 34 e7 23 a6 3c f2 24 f2 11 ce 1a 0d

    1. Methods of Audio Steganography

      Least significant bit (LSB) coding is the simplest way to embed information in a digital audio file. By substituting the least significant bit of each sampling point with a binary message, LSB coding allows for a large amount of data to be encoded. The following diagram illustrates how the message 'HEY' is encoded in a 16-bit CD quality sample using the LSB method:

      5.1.1 Standard LSB ALGORITHM:

      It performs bit level manipulation to encode the message. The following steps are

      1. Receives the audio file in the form of bytes and converted in to bit pattern.

      2. Each character in the message is converted in bit pattern.

      3. Replaces the LSB bit from audio with LSB bit from character in the message.

    2. Algorithm: Improved/ Modified LSB embedding if host sample a>0

      if bit 0 is to be embedded

      if ai1=0 then ai1ai2…a0=11…1

      if ai1=1 then ai1ai2…a0=00…0 and

      if ai+1=0 then ai+1=1

      else if ai+2=0 then ai+2=1

      else if a15=0 then a15=1

      else if bit 1 is to be embedded

      if ai1=1 then ai1ai2…a0=00…0

      if ai1=0 then ai1ai2…a0=11…1 and

      if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0

      else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0

      else if a15=1 then a15=0 if host sample a<0

      if bit 0 is to be embedded

      if ai1=0 then ai1ai2…a0=11…1

      if ai1=1 then ai1ai2…a0=00…0 and

      if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0

      else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0

      else if a15=1 then a15=0

      else if bit 1 is to be embedded

      if ai1=1 then ai1ai2…a0=00…0

      if ai1=0 then ai1ai2…a0=11…1 and

      if ai+1=1 then ai+1=0

      else if ai+2=1 then ai+2=0

      else if a15=1 then a15=0

    3. In LSB coding, the ideal data transmission rate is 1 kbps per 1 kHz. In some implementations of LSB coding, however, the two least significant bits of a sample are replaced with two message bits. This increases the amount of data that can be encoded but also increases the amount of resulting noise in the audio file as well. Thus, one should consider the signal content before deciding on the LSB operation to use. For example, a sound file that was recorded in a bustling subway station would mask low- bit encoding noise. On the other hand, the same noise would be audible in a sound file containing a piano solo.

    4. The main advantage of the LSB coding method is low computational complexity of the algorithm while its major disadvantage As the number of used LSBs during LSB coding increases or, equivalently, depth of the modified LSB layer becomes larger, probability of making the embedded message statistically detectable increases and perceptual transparency of Steganographyobjects is decreased. Low Bit Encoding is therefore an undesirable method, mainly due to its failure to meet the Steganography requirement of being undetectable.

Figure 5.4 the message HEY is encoded in a 16-bit CD quality sample using the LSB method:

:

Figure 5.5 the interpretation of these bytes as a WAVE sound file

VI CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

In earlier system, we had used single server system. We wont use server selection.Even in multiple servers,nly bandwidth and rate is used to select the server. In future work, we have used multiple servers, as we have used another factor also with bandwidth and rate that is distance. Using this, we shall select the server among the multiple servers.

Steganography transmits secrets through apparently innocuous covers in an effort to conceal the existence of a secret. Audio file Steganography and its derivatives are growing in use and application. In areas where cryptography and strong encryption are being outlawed, citizens are looking at Steganography to circumvent such policies and pass messages covertly.

  1. CONCLUSION

    Multimedia proxy where the data cache and computational cache were introduced considering the different Characteristics of Networks. A unified cost metric based on multiple caching objectives is proposed in this work to evaluate the performance of multimedia proxy. Based on our defined cost metric, for the single-server case, we proposed a novel cost-based replacement algorithm so as to improve all three aspects of performances.* Can be sent through the network, and that can be extracted at the other end.

    Steganography transmits secrets through apparently innocuous covers in an effort to conceal the existence of a secret. Audio file Steganography and its derivatives are growing in use and application. In areas where cryptography and strong encryption are being outlawed, citizens are looking at Steganography to circumvent such policies and pass messages covertly.

    Although the algorithm presented is a simple one and not without its drawbacks, it represents a significant improvement over simplistic stenographic algorithms that do not use keys. By using this algorithm, two parties can be communicated with a fairly high level of confidence about the communication not being detected.

    In designing the Steganography utmost care was taken to meet user requirements as much as possible. The analysis and design phase was reviewed. Care was taken strictly to follow the software engineering concepts. And principles so as to maintain good quality in the developed system as per the user requirements.

  2. REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Std 830-1998 : IEEE Recommended practice for Software Specifications. Software Engineering Standards Committee . [2] IEEE Std 1016-1998 : IEEE Recommended practice for Software Design Software Engineering Standards Committee.

[3] IEEE Std 829-1998 : IEEE Standard for Software Test DocumentationSoftware Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Society [4] IEEE Std 1016-1998 : IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing Software Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Society

[5] IEEE Std 1063-2001 : IEEE Standard for Software User DocumentationSoftware Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Society [6] Devyani Bajaj, Neelesh Gupta, GPS Based Automatic Vehicle Tracking Using RFID, International Journal of Engineering

andInnovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 1, January 2012.

[7] Soyoung Hwang and Donghui Yu, GPS Localization Improvement of Smartphones Using Built-in Sensors, International Journal ofSmart Home Vol. 6, No. 3, July, 2012.

[8] PankajVerma, J.S Bhatia, Design and Development of GPS_GSM Based Tracking System with Google Map Based Monitoring

,International JouRrnal of Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (IJCSEA) Vol.3, No.3, June 2013.

[9] Akin ode J. L1, Alamode A. J2 and Ojuawo O. O3. Nigeria, "Improving National Security using GPS Trackinsystem Technology.Proceedings of the 1st International Technology, Education and Environment Conference(c) African Society for Scientific Research(ASSR).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *