Comprehensive Transport Planning for Belgaum Central Bus Stand Area

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Comprehensive Transport Planning for Belgaum Central Bus Stand Area

Santosh B. C. Vinaykumar S. M.

Assistant Professor Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering

  1. John Institute of Technology B.M.S. College of Engineering Bangalore, India Bangalore, India

    Abstract– Belgaum has developed very quickly in recent times, especially since 2000. As the city economy has grown, many new buildings and factories have been constructed, and working and living conditions for people in the city have gradually improved. However, the growth of Belgaum's population is now causing a number of serious problems, including traffic congestion, Accident rate. The study area which has been chosen is Central Bus stand Belgaum which acts as Central Business District (CBD) for Belgaum city that is totally congested due to various factors and traffic. There is no easy movement for buses and pedestrians. Because of the heavy congestion on roads approaching bus stand, the pedestrians are facing problems to cross the road. Also due to improper road conditions, are leading to accidents. This study focuses on reducing these problems and to continue the Improvements in Belgaums living and working condition.

    Keywords: Central Business District (CBD), Pedestrian survey, Traffic surveys and Improvement strategies and suggestions.

    1. INTRODUCTION

      Present study towards the comprehensive transport planning for a central business district (CBD) area has been chosen in and around Belgaum KSRTC bus stand and City bus stand. It is observed from the visual observations, that there are problems associated with smooth traffic operation due to various reasons.

      The pedestrian movement for crossing the road connecting Market circle to Khadebazarcircle and commute between KSRTC and City bus stand is concentrated at the main entrance of KSRTC bus stand. This pedestrian volume and higher vehicular volume has lead to conflict between pedestrian and vehicles which have resulted in terms of accidents. In view of this, it is necessary to remove the conflict and stream line the flow of traffic along the bus stand road and also ease out congestion and conflicts at KSRTC bus stand entrance location.

    2. OBJECTIVES

      • Identification of study area location in terms of network of roads and past study details

      • Conducting necessary field studies such as Road inventory, Area inventory, and Traffic studies along the study area.

      • Collection of relevant secondary data required for estimation and projection of traffic.

      • Analysis of data to ascertain traffic characteristics and roadway details.

      • Development of strategies to minimize the conflicts and reduce accidents.

    3. LIMITATIONS

      A detailed pedestrian surveys and vehicle surveys are carried out at the location only on the working day in the middle of the week. Most of the available footpaths are fully occupied by the small merchants and shop keepers. . In this survey the count is taken manually, during morning and evening peak hours especially when traffic moment is too high.

    4. SCOPE

      To conduct comprehensive study for the surrounding area and to develop complete transport demand model for the area. This could be a major study that can be carried out by local government.

    5. STUDY OF PRESENT CONDITIONS IN

      BELGAUM CITY

      1. General

        Belgaum (also known as Belagavi) is the headquarters city of Belgaum district and is one of the oldest urban centers of Karnataka, lying at a distance of around 502 km from Bangalore and around 500 km from Mumbai. The city area is planned and regulated by the Belgaum Urban Development Authority (BUDA). The Belgaum Municipal Corporation (BMC) is the city administrator, which comprises 58 wards under its jurisdiction with an urban population of about 488,292 (Census 2011).

      2. Growth Rate of Vehicles

        The study area lies within the Belgaum City and also central business district place for Belgaum which is greatly influenced by City traffic. Belgaum city has a large number of two wheelers among the fast moving vehicles and Bicycles account the major share of slow moving vehicles. The figure 1 below represents the growth rate for vehicles registration for Belgaum City in last 5 years (Fig.1).

        0

        0

        2008

        YEAR

        2010 2011 2012

        2008

        YEAR

        2010 2011 2012

        30000

        25000

        20000

        15000

        10000

        5000

        30000

        25000

        20000

        15000

        10000

        5000

        14266

        14266

        16340

        16340

        2009

        2009

        No. of Vehicles Registered

        No. of Vehicles Registered

      3. Existing Condition of Location

      The pedestrian movement for crossing the road is concentrated at the main entrance of KSRTC bus stand. This pedestrian volume and higher vehicular volume has lead to conflict between pedestrian and vehicles which have resulted in terms of accidents. The figure 2 and 3indicates some following points:

      • High traffic flow

      • Considerable pedestrian delay

      • Pedestrian facing problems to cross the road

      • Formation of conflicts due to restricted access to roadway

      • Due to improper road conditions, Entry and Exit of Buses have leading to accidents

      Fig 2.High traffic flow at KSRTC Entrance

      Fig 3.Pedestrian facing problems to cross road

    6. DATA COLLECTION:

      Registered vehicles

      25507

      23820

      20480

      Registered vehicles

      25507

      23820

      20480

      For the purpose of preparing a comprehensive transport planning, detailed data collection are required to analyze the traffic characteristics at the study area, for this survey data has been collected by conducting various surveys like Inventory survey, Traffic surveys, Pedestrian surveys for 12 hours and Bus entry and exit surveys at KSRTC and City bus stands for 24 hours.

      The relevant secondary data like accident data, growth rate of Belgaum city are collected. Summary of Present traffic volume at intersections, Mid block, Pedestrian volume, KSRTC bus entry in 15 min and in one hour and for 24 hour. The table 1 gives details of survey conducted.

      TABLE I. LIST OF TRAFFIC SURVEYS

      Sl. No

      Survey

      No. Of Locations

      Location details

      1

      Classified traffic volume counts at mid blocks

      1

      (12 Hours)

      1.Bus Stand Road

      2

      Classified turning movement counts at junctions

      2

      ( 12 Hours)

      3

      Pedestrian counts

      3

      (12 Hours)

      1. Market Circle

      2. Khadebazar Circle

      1. Main Gate of KSRTC Bus stand

      2. Back Gate of KSRTC Bus stand

      3. alternate ways

      1. Mid Block Count Details

        The average daily traffic volumes observed on the Bus stand road is 12,379 PCU (13744 vehicles). Details are presented in Table 2.

        TABLE II.DETAILS OF MID BLOCK COUNT SURVEY

        Mini Bus

        Category

        Vehicle type

        Vehicle count

        Passenger Vehicles

        KSRTC Bus

        1208

        CITY Bus

        965

        60

        Pvt. Bus

        13

        Car/ Jeep/ Van

        503

        Two Wheelers

        7704

        Auto Rickshaws

        2037

        Auto Rickshaws (goods)

        162

        Commercial Vehicles

        LCV (4-Tyres)

        21

        Tractors

        1

        Two Axle Truck

        0

        Three Axle Truck

        0

        Slow moving Vehicles

        Cycles

        1051

        Carts

        19

        Total Vehicles

        13,744

        Total PCU's

        12,379

      2. Traffic Composition

        Composition of daily traffic is presented in Figure 4. Out of the total traffic, 97% of traffic consists of passenger

        7%

        7%

        246

        346

        487

        685

        6

        KSRTC Exit to Khadebazar circle

        50

        70

        98

        138

        Total

        3124

        4398

        6191

        8715

        246

        346

        487

        685

        6

        KSRTC Exit to Khadebazar circle

        50

        70

        98

        138

        Total

        3124

        4398

        6191

        8715

        vehicles. Share of two wheelers is the highest followed byauto rickshaws and cars.

        0%

        0%

        0%

        1%

        Percentage

        0%

        0%

        0%

        0%

        1%

        Percentage

        0%

        7%

        2-W

        5%

        2%

        7%

        2-W

        5%

        2%

        17%

        61%

        Mini bus Cycles

        LCV

        17%

        61%

        Mini bus Cycles

        LCV

        Tractor

        Hand cart

        Tractor

        Hand cart

        Fig 4. Traffic Composition Bus Stand Road

      3. Pedestrian Count Details

        There are three entries where the pedestrians are entering in to the KSRTC Bus stand. Pedestrian counts were carried out at all three locations to access the requirement of pedestrian facilities near KSRTC Bus stand. Peak Hour Summary is presented in Table 3.

        TABLE III.SUMMARY OF PEAK HOUR PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

        Sl. No

        Location name

        Peak hour

        No. Of pedestrians movement

        1

        KSRTC Entrance

        11.0012.00

        970

        2

        KSRTC Back Gate

        1.00-2.00

        775

        3

        Alternate way

        1.00-2.00

        670

      4. Traffic Projection

      Based on the growth rates, the anticipated future traffic at the Intersection is estimated for next 15 years with the compound growth rate of 7.08% for Belgaum city traffic and given below in Table-4.

      TABLE IV.PROJECTED PEAK HOUR TRAFFIC IN PCU FOR

      Sl. No

      Traffic movement

      Year/PCU

      2014

      (Present)

      2019

      2024

      2029

      1

      Market circle to Khadebazar circle

      1162

      1635

      2301

      3239

      2

      Khadebazar circle to Market circle

      1278

      1799

      2532

      3564

      3

      KSRTC Entry from Market circle

      305

      429

      603

      848

      4

      KSRTC Entry from Khadebazar circle

      80

      112

      157

      221

      5

      KSRTC Exit to Market circle

      Sl. No

      Traffic movement

      Year/PCU

      2014

      (Present)

      2019

      2024

      2029

      1

      Market circle to Khadebazar circle

      1162

      1635

      2301

      3239

      2

      Khadebazar circle to Market circle

      1278

      1799

      2532

      3564

      3

      KSRTC Entry from Market circle

      305

      429

      603

      848

      4

      KSRTC Entry from Khadebazar circle

      80

      112

      157

      221

      5

      KSRTC Exit to Market circle

      KSRTC BUS STAND INTERSECTION

    7. DATA ANALYSIS STUDIES:

      Auto-pass Auto-goods 4-W

      Bus

      Pvt bus

      Auto-pass Auto-goods 4-W

      Bus

      Pvt bus

      The preliminary analysis of all the data collected has been further analyzed to ascertain the characteristics and to arrive at the decision regarding existence of the traffic operations at the location. The analysis has been carried out considering the variables such as vehicle arrival pattern, headways, gaps, speed, delay and volume. These data have been analysed using statistical techniques to check the goodness of fit.

    8. IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES:

      A Junction Improvements

      With reference to figure 5 and 6 the improvements suggested are:

      • Providing road dividers along Market road and KSRTC bus stand road

      • Providing a central island with properly designed geometric elements

      • Providing zebra crossings with appropriate markings

      Fig 5. Market Junction with proper control devices

      Fig 6.Khadebazar Junction with proper control devices

      1. Pedestrian Facilities[6]

        With reference to the figure7, the pedestrian subway is proposed to achieve the pedestrian safety across the road linking between KSRTC and City Bus stands with consideration of IRC guidelines for controlled crossing.

        Fig 7. Proposal of pedestrian crossing at Intersection

      2. Level of Service

        Referring to the Table 5 and Table 6, addition of lane to existing road the level of service has been improvised.

        TABLE V.V/C RATIO FOR EXISTING ROAD

        Direction

        Volume (PCU/hr)

        Design service volume

        Volume/ capacity

        LOS

        Towards KSRTC bus stand

        1162

        1200

        0.97

        E

        Towards City bus stand

        1358

        1200

        1.13

        F

        Year

        Direction

        Towards KSRTC

        bus stand

        Towards City bus stand

        2014

        (Addition of lanes)

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        1162

        1358

        V/C

        0.4

        0.46

        LOS

        B

        B

        2019

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        635

        1911

        V/C

        0.56

        0.65

        LOS

        C

        D

        2024

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        2301

        2690

        V/C

        0.79

        0.9

        LOS

        D

        E

        2029

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        3239

        3786

        V/C

        1.1

        1.3

        LOS

        F

        F

        Year

        Direction

        Towards KSRTC

        bus stand

        Towards City bus stand

        2014

        (Addition of lanes)

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        1162

        1358

        V/C

        0.4

        0.46

        LOS

        B

        B

        2019

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        1635

        1911

        V/C

        0.56

        0.65

        LOS

        C

        D

        2024

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        2301

        2690

        V/C

        0.79

        0.9

        LOS

        D

        E

        2029

        Design service volume

        2900

        2900

        Volume

        3239

        3786

        V/C

        1.1

        1.3

        LOS

        F

        F

        TABLE VI.PROJECTED PEAK HOUR ADDING ONE LANE EACH SIDE OF BOTH KSRTC AND CITY BUS STAND [7]

        Adding lane on each side of KSRTC and City bus stand gives the average V/C value of 0.43 which reduces the traffic by 62% with Level of Service B.

    9. CONCLUSIONS:

    • The prevailing chaos around KSRTC and City bus stand area Belgaum has been scientifically investigated for proper local area management for decongestion and proper movements of pedestrian

    • The improvements suggested are junction improvement, proper pedestrian crossing, exit ramp at KSRTC bus stand and providing additional lanes though length of road.

REFERENCES

  1. KotkarKishorLaxman; RajatRastogi; and SatishChandra , Pedestrian Flow Characteristics in Mixed Traffic Conditions NATIONAL INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY -SURATKAL on 19thsept 2013, ASCE.

  2. Sudhir&Sameera Kumar SeconPvt. Ltd; Pedestrians at Crossroads: A Case Study of Bangalore

  3. T. SUBRAMANI;Study On Existing Pedestrian Traffic and Facility Study on Major Roads in Salem and Formulate Suggestions for Its Improvement, Vol.2, Issue.3, May-June 2012

  4. Dr.L.R. Kadiyali; Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning Khanna Publishers, Seventh Edition, 2012

  5. Dr.S.K. Khanna and Dr.C.E.G. Justo; Highway Engineering

    Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee, U.K India, 9th edition 2011

  6. Guidelines for Pedestrian facilities. IRC:103-2012

  7. Guidelines for Traffic Prediction on Rural Highways.

    IRC:108-1996

  8. Highway safety code. IRC :SP:44:1994

  9. Guidelines on Design of At-Grade Intersections in Rural &Urban Areas. IRC-SP-41

  10. AASHTO-Geometric design of highways and street

  11. Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment CTE, JNTU May 2007

  12. Prefeasibility Report- Outer Ring Road, Belgaum, Directorate of Urban Land Transport; Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India Private Limited April 2012

  13. TanweerHasan, Warrants for Pedestrian Overpasses in Large Urban Areas

  14. Elizabeth Deakin, Land Use and Transportation Planningin Response to Congestion:The California Experience

  15. Stephen Lawe, JP Connolly, Improving Traffic Assignment Model UsingIntersection Delay Function

  16. www.wikipedia.org

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *