 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1494
 Authors : Ankita Singh, Dr Prerna Mahajan
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS50544
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 05 (May 2013)
 Published (First Online): 22052013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Comparison of K Means and Fuzzy C Means Algorithms
Ankita Singh
MCA Scholar
Dr Prerna Mahajan
Head of department
Institute of information technology and management
Abstract
Clustering is the process of grouping feature vectors into classes in the selforganizing mode. Choosing cluster centers is crucial to the clustering. In this paper we compared two fuzzy algorithms: fuzzy cmeans algorithm and fuzzy k means algorithm. Fuzzy cmeans algorithm uses the reciprocal of distances to decide the cluster centers. The representation reflects the distance of a feature vector from the cluster center but does not differentiate the distribution of the clusters [1, 10, and 11]. The fuzzy k means algorithm in data mining, is a method of cluster analysis which aims to partition n observations into k clusters in which each observation belongs to the cluster with the nearest mean[10,11].
Keywords: fuzzy cmeans, fuzzy k means, classification, pattern recognition

Introduction
Clustering is the classification of similar objects into different groups, or more precisely, the partitioning of a data set into subsets (clusters), so that the data in each cluster share some common attributes [3].Cluster analysis attempts to isolate regions of similarity within a dataset and find the relationships between multiple clusters. The differences among members of a cluster, in terms of their absolute difference from the clusters calculated centre or centroid, define a metric of compactness and homogeneity [3,10,11].
Fuzzy clustering plays an important role in solving problems in the areas of pattern recognition and fuzzy model identification. A variety of fuzzy clustering methods have been proposed and most of them are based upon distance criteria. One widely used algorithm is the fuzzy cmeans (FCM) algorithm. It uses reciprocal distance to compute fuzzy weights and Kmeans algorithm that is used to solve well known clustering problems. In the following sections we
discuss and compare Kmeans and fuzzy cmeans algorithm [11]

KMeans Algorithm
//Assumptions:
//Akis the centroid number
//Axand Ayare the x and y value of the centroid.
//Dkis the distance between centroid and point
//XkandYkis the x and y value of the point
//BxkandBykare the x and y value of new centroid
Input:Ak,Ax, Ay, Dk,Xk ,Yk ,Bxk , Byk
Step1: Choose random centroids. Ak(ax,ay) where k < 4
//Assumptions:
//Akis the centroid number
//Axand Ayare the x and y value of the centroid.
//Dkis the distance between centroid and point
//XkandYkis the x and y value of the point
//BxkandBykare the x and y value of new centroid
Input:Ak,Ax, Ay, Dk,Xk ,Yk ,Bxk , Byk
Step1: Choose random centroids. Ak(ax,ay) where k < 4
Kmeans algorithm given by MacQueen,[9] is one of the simplest unsupervised learning algorithms that solve the wellknown clustering problem. The procedure follows a simple and easy way to classify a given data set through a certain number of clusters (assume k clusters) fixed a priori. The idea is to define k centroids, one for each cluster. These centroids should be placed in a cunning way because of different location causes different result. So, the better choice is to place them as much as possible far away from each other. The next step is to take each point belonging to a given data set and associate it to the nearest centroid. When no point is pending, the first step is completed and an early group age is done. At this point we need to recalculate k new centroids as bary centers of the clusters resulting from the previous step. After we have these k new centroids, a new binding has to be done between the same data set points and the nearest new centroid. A loop has been generated. As a result of this loop we may notice that the k centroids change their location step by step until no more changes are done. In other words centroids do not move any more [2]
Step2:calculate distance between centroids and points Dk =  xk axk +  yk ayk
Step3:According minimal DK assign the point to that cluster.
Step4: Calculate new centroids Bxk =
Byk =
Step5:Check if new centroids are equal to old centroids Axk == Bxk
Ayk == Byk
Step6: If new centroids are equal to old centroids then program ends else goto step2
Output:K clusters
Step2:calculate distance between centroids and points Dk =  xk axk +  yk ayk
Step3:According minimal DK assign the point to that cluster.
Step4: Calculate new centroids Bxk =
Byk =
Step5:Check if new centroids are equal to old centroids Axk == Bxk
Ayk == Byk
Step6: If new centroids are equal to old centroids then program ends else goto step2
Output:K clusters
Fig 1.kmeans algorithm

Results and Experiments:
We have considered a student data of 8 students and cluster the following eight points(with(x,y) representing age and marks or the student) S1(5,10) S2(6,8) S3(4,5) S4(7,10) S5(8,12)
S6(10,9) S7(12,11) S8(4,6) . Initial cluster centers are S1 (5, 10), S4 (7, 10), S7 (12, 11). The distance
function between two points a=(x1, y1) and b=(x2, y2) is defined as: p (a,b)= x2x1+y2y1.
The k means algorithm find three cluster centers after the second iteration in the considered example
Table 1:Kmeans computation on student data [step 1]
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
S2
6
8
S3
4
5
S4
7
10
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
S2
6
8
S3
4
5
S4
7
10
Iteration 1
S5
8
12
S6
10
9
S7
12
11
S8
4
6
The initial clusters centersmeans, are (5, 10), (7, 10) and (12, 11) chosen randomly. Next we will calculate the distances from the first point (5, 10) to each of the three centroids, by using the distance function:
Point
mean 1
x1,y1
x2,y2
(5,10)
(5,10)
P(a,b)=x2x1+y2y1
P(point mean)= x2x1+y2y1 (eq 1)
=55+1010
Point
mean 2
x1,y1
x2,y2
(5,10)
(7,10)
P(a,b)=x2x1+y2y1
P(point mean)= x2x1+y2y1
= 75+1010
= 2+0=2
Point
mean 3
x1,y1
x2,y2
(5,10)
(12,11)
P(a,b)=x2x1+y2y1
P(point mean)= x2x1+y2y1
= 125+1110
= 7+1=8
So, we fill in these values in the table:
Table 2: Kmeans computation on student data[step
2]
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
0
2
8
1
S2
6
8
S3
4
5
S4
7
10
S5
8
12
S6
10
9
S7
12
11
S8
4
6
Now, we go to the second point (6, 8) and we will calculate the distance to each of the three means, by using distance function given in (eq 1) and analogically we fill all the values in the table:
Table 3:Kmeans computation on student data[step3]
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
0
2
8
1
S2
6
8
3
3
9
1
S3
4
5
S4
7
10
S5
8
12
S6
10
9
S7
12
11
S8
4
6
Now, we go to the third point(4,5) and we will calculate the distance to each of the three means, by using distance function given in (eq 1) Analogically, we fill in the rest of the table, and place each point in one of the clusters:
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
0
2
8
1
S2
6
8
3
3
9
1
S3
4
5
6
8
14
1
S4
7
10
2
0
6
2
S5
8
12
5
3
5
2
(5,10)
(7,10)
(12,11)
Roll no
Age
Marks
Dist Mean 1
Dist Mean 2
Dist Mean 3
Cluster
S1
5
10
0
2
8
1
S2
6
8
3
3
9
1
S3
4
5
6
8
14
1
S4
7
10
2
0
6
2
S5
8
12
5
3
5
2
Table 4: Kmeans computation on student data[step 4]
S6
10
9
6
4
4
3
S7
12
11
8
6
0
3
S8
4
6
5
7
13
1
For Cluster 1, we have (5+6+4+4)/4, (10+8+5+6)/4 = (4.75, 7.25)
For Cluster 2, we have (7+8)/2, (10+12)/2 = (7.5, 11) For Cluster 3, we have (10+12)/2, (9+11)/2 = (11, 10) New Clusters: 1:{S1,S2,S3,S8}, 2:{S4,S5} , 3:{S6,S7}
For Cluster 1, we have (5+6+4+4)/4, (10+8+5+6)/4 = (4.75, 7.25)
For Cluster 2, we have (7+8)/2, (10+12)/2 = (7.5, 11) For Cluster 3, we have (10+12)/2, (9+11)/2 = (11, 10) New Clusters: 1:{S1,S2,S3,S8}, 2:{S4,S5} , 3:{S6,S7}
Next we need to recompute the new clusters centers (means). We do so, by taking the mean of all points in each cluster.
C1= (5+6+4+4)/4, (10+8+5+6)/4 = (4.75, 7.25)
C2= (7+8)/2, (10+12)/2 = (7.5, 11)
C3= (10+12)/2, (9+11)/2 = (11, 10)
C1= (5+6+4+4)/4, (10+8+5+6)/4 = (4.75, 7.25)
C2= (7+8)/2, (10+12)/2 = (7.5, 11)
C3= (10+12)/2, (9+11)/2 = (11, 10)
Centers of the new clusters:
Fig 2: initial clusters
Fig 3: Merging clusters
Red dots are the centroids. Blue dots are the points.


Fuzzy CMeans Algorithm
//Assumptions
: is the ith data point
//Cj:is the centroid of a fuzzy cluster ( j = 1, 2, . . ., p). This value is repeatedly calculated by the algorithm
:isthe distance of the ith data point from the jth cluster center with using the Euclidean distance.
//P: is the number of fuzzy clusters specified as part of
the algorithm.
//M:isafuzzification parameter
: is a fuzzy membership qualification indicating the membership of sample xi to the jthcluster[3]
Input: xi,Cj,dij,p,M,
Step 1: Randomly initializing the cluster center
Step2: Creating distance matrix from a point xi to each of the cluster centers to with taking the Euclidean distance between the point and the cluster center.
//Assumptions
: is the ith data point
//Cj:is the centroid of a fuzzy cluster ( j = 1, 2, . . ., p). This value is repeatedly calculated by the algorithm
:isthe distance of the ith data point from the jth cluster center with using the Euclidean distance.
//P: is the number of fuzzy clusters specified as part of
the algorithm.
//M:isafuzzification parameter
: is a fuzzy membership qualification indicating the membership of sample xi to the jthcluster[3]
Input: xi,Cj,dij,p,M,
Step 1: Randomly initializing the cluster center
Step2: Creating distance matrix from a point xi to each of the cluster centers to with taking the Euclidean distance between the point and the cluster center.
The most wellknown fuzzy clustering algorithm is fuzzy cmeans, a modification by Bezdek of an original crisp clustering methodology. Bezdek introduced the idea of a fuzzification parameter (m) in the range [1, n], which determines the degree of fuzziness in the clusters. When m = 1 the effect is a crisp clustering of points. when m > 1 is the degree of fuzziness among points in the decision space increases[3] where:
Object8
8.5
4312.0
Object9
10.0
4425.0
Object10
8.5
3850.0
Object11
10.0
3563.0
Object12
8.0
3609.0
Object13
9.5
3761.0
Object14
10.0
3086.0
Object15
15.0
2372.0
Object16
15.5
2833.0
Object17
15.5
2774.0
Object18
16.0
2587.0
Number of cluster:
2
Fuzzification parameter
1.25
Step3: Creating membership matrix takes the fractional distance from the point to the cluster center and makes this a fuzzy measurement by raising the fraction to the inverse fuzzification parameter.
This is divided by the sum of all fractional distances, thereby ensuring that the sum of all memberships is 1.
Step4: Creating membership matrix
Fuzzy cmeans imposes a direct constraint on the fuzzy membership function associated with each point, as follows. The total membership for a point in sample or decision space must add to 1
Step5: Generating new centroid for each cluster
Step6: Generating new centroid for each cluster with iteration all this step optimize cluster centers will generate.
Step7: Weight Acceleration Cluster Assignments
Output: weighted cluster assignments
Step3: Creating membership matrix takes the fractional distance from the point to the cluster center and makes this a fuzzy measurement by raising the fraction to the inverse fuzzification parameter.
This is divided by the sum of all fractional distances, thereby ensuring that the sum of all memberships is 1.
Step4: Creating membership matrix
Fuzzy cmeans imposes a direct constraint on the fuzzy membership function associated with each point, as follows. The total membership for a point in sample or decision space must add to 1
Step5: Generating new centroid for each cluster
Step6: Generating new centroid for each cluster with iteration all this step optimize cluster centers will generate.
Step7: Weight Acceleration Cluster Assignments
Output: weighted cluster assignments
Step 1:Randomly initializing the cluster center
Cluster Center Initialization
ACCEL
WGT
Centroid 1
6.00
1379.00
Centroid 2
5.00
817.00
Cluster Center Initialization
ACCEL
WGT
Centroid 1
6.00
1379.00
Centroid 2
5.00
817.00
Step2: Creating distance matrix from a point xi to each of the cluster centers to with taking the Euclidean distance between the point and the cluster center.
Fig 4: fuzzy c means algorithm

Results and experiments:
We have assumed a automobile property information database and applied fuzzy c means algorithm on it, whereclustering is done in two attributes ACCEL (acceleration) and WGT (weight) where m= 1.25and P= 2[3].
Table 5: Fuzzy cmeans computation on automobile data[step 1]
d (12 6)2 (3504 1379)2 11
Cluster1
Cluster2
Object1
2125.0
2687.0
Object2
2314.0
2876.0
Object3
2057.0
2619.0
Object4
2054.0
2616.0
Object5
2070.0
2632.0
Object6
2962.0
3524.0
Object7
2975.0
3537.0
Object8
2933.0
3495.0
Object9
3046.0
3608.0
Object10
2471.0
3033.0
Object11
2184.0
2746.0
Object12
2230.0
2792.0
Object13
2382.0
2269.0
Cluster1
Cluster2
Object1
2125.0
2687.0
Object2
2314.0
2876.0
Object3
2057.0
2619.0
Object4
2054.0
2616.0
Object5
2070.0
2632.0
Object6
2962.0
3524.0
Object7
2975.0
3537.0
Object8
2933.0
3495.0
Object9
3046.0
3608.0
Object10
2471.0
3033.0
Object11
2184.0
2746.0
Object12
2230.0
2792.0
Object13
2382.0
2269.0
Table 6: Fuzzy cmeans computation on automobile data[step 2]
ACCEL
WGT
Object1
12.0
3504.0
Object2
11.5
3693.0
Object3
11.0
3436.0
Object4
12.0
3433.0
Object5
10.5
3449.0
Object6
10.0
4341.0
Object7
9.0
4354.0
Object16
0.79
0.21
1.00
Object17
0.79
0.21
1.00
Object18
0.82
0.18
1.00
Object14
1707.0
1555.0
Object15
993.0
815.0
Object16
1454.0
2016.0
Object17
1395.0
1957.0
Object18
1208.0
1770.0
Object14
1707.0
1555.0
Object15
993.0
815.0
Object16
1454.0
2016.0
Object17
1395.0
1957.0
Object18
1208.0
1770.0
Step3: Creating membership matrix takes the fractional distance from the point to the cluster center and makes this a fuzzy measurement by raising the fraction to the inverse fuzzification parameter.
This is divided by the sum of all fractional distances, thereby ensuring that the sum of all memberships is 1.
Step4: Creating membership matrix
Fuzzy cmeans imposes a direct constraint on the fuzzy membership function associated with each point, as follows. The total membership for a point in sample or decision space must add to 1.
Cluster1
Cluster2
Sum of DFM
Object1
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object2
0.70
0.3
1.00
Object3
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object4
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object5
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object6
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object7
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object8
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object9
0.66
0.34
1.00
Object10
0.69
0.31
1.00
Object11
0.71
0.29
1.00
Object12
0.71
0.29
1.00
Object13
0.45
0.55
1.00
Object14
0.41
0.59
1.00
Object15
0.31
0.69
1.00
Cluster1
Cluster2
Sum of DFM
Object1
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object2
0.70
0.3
1.00
Object3
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object4
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object5
0.72
0.28
1.00
Object6
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object7
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object8
0.67
0.33
1.00
Object9
0.66
0.34
1.00
Object10
0.69
0.31
1.00
Object11
0.71
0.29
1.00
Object12
0.71
0.29
1.00
Object13
0.45
0.55
1.00
Object14
0.41
0.59
1.00
Object15
0.31
0.69
1.00
cycle 3
AC
WG
Cent
16.3
458.
Cent
14.1
3980
cycle 3
AC
WG
Cent
16.3
458.
Cent
14.1
3980
cycle 4
AC
WG
Cent
16.2
2426
Cent
14.3
3944
cycle 4
AC
WG
Cent
16.2
2426
Cent
14.3
3944
Table 7: Fuzzy cmeans computation on automobile data[step 3]
Step5: Generating new centroid for each cluster
Cluster Center after cycle 1
ACCEL
WGT
Centroid 1
10.18
3767.12
Centroid 2
11.96
3690.81
cycle 2
AC
WG
Cent
15.6
2906
Cent
14.6
3693
cycle 2
AC
WG
Cent
15.6
2906
Cent
14.6
3693
Step6: Generating new centroid for each cluster with iteration all this step optimize cluster centers will generate.
cycle 1
AC
WG
Cent
10.1
376
Cent
11.9
369
Final Cluster
AC
WG
Cent
16.2
2426
Cent
14.3
3944
Basis
K means
Fuzzy C means
Reason
Efficie
Fairer
Slower
K
ncy
Means
just
needs
to do a
distanc
e
calcula
tion,
wherea
s fuzzy
c
means
needs
to do a
full
inverse
–
distanc
e
weighti
ng[4]
Object
[2] The
ive
objecti
functi
ve
on
[2] functio
ns are
virtual
ly
identic
al, the
only
differe
nce
being
the
introdu
ction of
a
vector
which
express
es the
percent
age of
belongi
ng of a
given
point to
each of
the
clusters
Basis
K means
Fuzzy C means
Reason
Efficie
Fairer
Slower
K
ncy
Means
just
needs
to do a
distanc
e
calcula
tion,
wherea
s fuzzy
c
means
needs
to do a
full
inverse
–
distanc
e
weighti
ng[4]
Object
[2] The
ive
objecti
functi
ve
on
[2] functio
ns are
virtual
ly
identic
al, the
only
differe
nce
being
the
introdu
ction of
a
vector
which
express
es the
percent
age of
belongi
ng of a
given
point to
each of
the
clusters
Step7:Weight Acceleration Cluster Assignments
Table 8: Fuzzy cmeans computation on automobile data[step 4]
Object
Cluster1
Cluster2
Object1
0.002
0.998
Object2
0.002
0.998
Object3
0.009
0.991
Object4
0.009
0.991
Object5
0.007
0.993.
Object6
0.007
0.993
Object7
0.000
1.000
Object8
0.000
1.000
Object9
0.000
1.000
Object10
0.000
1.000
Object11
0.000
1.000
Object12
0.000
1.000
Object13
0.000
1.000
Object14
0.000
1.000
Object15
1.000
0.000
Object16
1.000
0.000
Object17
1.000
0.000
Object18
1.000
0.000
Object
Cluster1
Cluster2
Object1
0.002
0.998
Object2
0.002
0.998
Object3
0.009
0.991
Object4
0.009
0.991
Object5
0.007
0.993.
Object6
0.007
0.993
Object7
0.000
1.000
Object8
0.000
1.000
Object9
0.000
1.000
Object10
0.000
1.000
Object11
0.000
1.000
Object12
0.000
1.000
Object13
0.000
1.000
Object14
0.000
1.000
Object15
1.000
0.000
Object16
1.000
0.000
Object17
1.000
0.000
Object18
1.000
0.000


Comparison of K means and Fuzzy C means Algorithms.
Table 9: Comparative analysis of Kmeans and Fuzzy cmeans algorithm
[4] Perfor
Traditional and
Can be used in
FCM
mance
Limited use
variety of
may
clusters and can
conver
handle
ge
uncertainty.
faster
than
hard K
Means,
somew
hat
offsetti
ng the
bigger
comput
ational
require
ment of
FCM[4
]
Applic
In image
Segmentation of
ations
retrieval
magnetic
algorithms[5]
resonance
imaging
(MRI)[6]
– Analysis of
network
traffic[7]
– Fourier
transform
infrared
spectroscopy
(FTIR)[8]

Conclusion
In this paper we have evaluated kmeans & fuzzy c means algorithms on various datasets. k means clustering is a method of cluster analysis which aims to partition n observations into k clusters in which each observation belongs to the cluster with the nearest mean. This results in a partitioning of the data space into k clusters. Whereas .In fuzzy cmeans, each point has a degree of belonging to clusters, as in fuzzy logic, rather than belonging completely to just one cluster. Thus, points on the edge of a cluster, may be in the cluster to a lesser degree than points in the center of cluster. In this paper we have concluded that fuzzy c means algorithm is slower than k means algorithm in
efficiency but gives better results in cases where data is incomplete or uncertain and has a wider applicability.

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