Comparative Study of Routing Protocol using Emergency Vehicle in VANET

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Comparative Study of Routing Protocol using Emergency Vehicle in VANET

V. Sudha

Research Scholar Dept. of Computer Science

PeriyarUniversity

Dr. I. Laurence Aroquiaraj

Assistant Professor Dept. of ComputerScience

Periyar University

Abstract: Nowadays VANET is mostly active in intelligent Transport system (ITS) like communication and connecting moving vehicles. In this ITS nodes to the connected VANETs. Network distributed organizing by self communication mobile network create by moving vehicles, that are characterized by very high mobility depends on speed of vehicles and degrees of freedom in movements. VANET are powerful research area, now research being focused not only on providing potential applications for such type of VANET network but also on providing services for emergency vehicles . we vision architecture of a mobile for vehicles like fire service vans, ambulance police patrols cars have to be given a high priority in this versioned. Network architecture as their requirement are critical during emergency situations. This work discussed solving traffic congestion application of VANET. We have simulated the work of mobility on network simulator tool (ns2) in which we have simulated the traffic roads with the help of AODV,DSR,DSDV protocols. AODV routing is used the best obtained for VANET, because it is used to find the correct destination.

INDEX TERMS: VANET, Intelligent Transport system (ITS),AODV, DSR, DSDV, Network

Simulation,emergency,NS2.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    VANET is a subgroup of MANET where the nodes refers to vehicles. The movement of vehicles are restricted by congestion is a major problem in metropolitan cities to avoid the traffic and attacks using the protocols in AODV,DSR,DSDV. The communication between the vehicles and road side antenna(RSA). All the message are divided in different frequencies according to their priority and the position of the receivers vehicles which automatically tunes it self with different frequencies according to the speed of vehicles.

  2. METHODOLOGY

    This section explain about the topology used for the simulation, the tools required to built the road map and vehicle traffic .The idea of the routing protocols used and its traffic connection are also explained.

    1. Topology

      A road map is created in two lane roads and traffic junctions. The lanes are considered to be edges and junction are also called as nodes in the modeler. The

      roads, traffic regulations we can deploy fixed infrastructure in critical locations. It is fast and reliable and provides real time safety improve traffic safety and comfort of during minimize accident traffic intensity locating vehicles. VANET active safety of passengers and more reliable traffic After people are stuck for hoers in a traffic jam it happens due to accidents, natural calamity, improper driving or due to various other reasons. This information of the situation can be displayed through text messages on the dash board or even through an image of the affected are collected by vehicles in that area, so that passengers have a better understanding of the seriousness in problem. V2V system are based on dedicated between short range of communication(DSRC). This communication technology provide wireless link between the road side unit (RSU) and built in vehicle transceivers. The main idea in this work to make an emergency vehicle reach its destination in the shortest time possible the emergency vehicle needs to reach its destination as soon as possible and the traffic signals in the path. There is a change of the traffic signal from red to green when it receives an alert message and reverts only the emergency vehicle crosses the junction the effective routing protocols implementation this work analyses the result obtained from a network consists of nodes that are moving at very high speed.

      vehicles will move dynamic this can be modeled using MOVE, share xml file are generation and the visualization is achieved using SUMO[15].

      1. MOVE

        Move is implement in java and over the open-source micro-traffic simulator SUMO[3]. The output of move is a mobility trace file which contains information about the realistic vehicle movements then realized in NS-2 or Qualnet.

      2. SUMO

        The SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) traffic simulation is used to provide a better way to effectively plan, operate and design intelligent transportation system[3]. This tool helps in finding the best rout, traffic ling management strategies and vehicular communication.

    2. ROUTING PROTOCOLS

      1. Proactive (table-driven) routing protocols:

        In this protocols each node maintains up-to-date routing information at any time to any other node in the network. Which is based on these principles in DSDV.

        Destination sequenced distance vector(DSDV)

        The DSDV protocols is based on Distributed Bellman- ford algorithm[8] and implements the distance vector strategy its routing table a set of information for each destination containing[]:

        • The destination address;

        • The number hops (node) to reach it;

        • The greatest sequence number received for that destination.

          There are two type of traffic generated in update:

        • Incremental update:

          Only the data that has changed since the updates is sent. Each node receiving these message transfer including the elements which have been modified.

        • Complete update:

          The totality of the routing table is sent to update node in the network which leads to changes in their routing tables.

          Accide nt

          RS

          routing protocol combination of the two DSDV and DSR.[17]The road remains active between the source and the destination routing protocol is not involved, which minimizes the number of broad casts message by creating routes as needed un like DSDV.

    3. Traffic Connection

      We assume content bit rate traffic over UDP for simulations.

      1. UDP Traffic

        The user datagram protocol is connection less service UDP is used here because unlike TCP where handshaking is necessary it takes some more time to establish a connection with other nodes Alert messages can be easily sent where reliable data transfer is not a priority[3].

      2. CBR Traffic

    CBR is chosen mainly because of constant bit rare traffic a fixed bandwidth link is needed for providing data traffic CBR service, a flow is carried out across the network in such a way that the end to end delay is less and the transfer of message is sender node[3].

    A . Attack Model

    The V2V and V2 I communication are carried out in open wireless channel, there are many attacks which threaten kinds of communication on the road. we have listed several possible attacks performed in VANETs[6].

    1. Message replay attack: This attacks is basically happening when the attacker repeats or delays the valid message transmission maliciously to disturb the traffic.

      Forwards

      the

      message it has received from

      RS

      RS Sends a message to

    2. Sybil attack: The attacker may use multiple identities at the same time. This attacks an attacker broadcast numerous messages with different identities to other vehicles.

      alert vehicles that

      Emerge

      ncy sends a

      RS

      vehicl e

      RS

      Road Side

    3. Masquerading : In this attacks the attacker actively pretends to be another vehicle by using false identities attacks takes place when one user maker believe to be a different user to gan unauthorized access through legitimate access identification.

    4. Message tampering/ fabrication/Alteration: or a specific part of the In this attack, the attacker may

      Fig1.Method of reserving routes for emergency vechicles.

      2.Reactive (On-Demand) routing protocols routing

      This protocols reactive protocols create a route only when it is desired the path is established path the protocols that are DSR, AODV.

      Dynamic source routing (DSR)

      The routes constructed are based on demand algorithm using source routing each node include its address in the header of the packet which carries the complete sequence list of nodes through which the packet should of transmit[18]. This routing protocol consists of two basic operations Route Discovery and Route Maintenance.

      Ad-hoc On-demand Distance vector (AODV)

      The AODV protocol[10] is enhancements to DSDV protocols and it is based on the principle of distance vector

      modify, delete and alter the content of the message to be sent.

    5. Collusion attack: The collusion attack is the improper secret agreement in which two or more adversaries cooperatively defraud and act as legitimate Pus for benefit the updated group key after leaving from the Pus group.

    1. Route Reservation for the Emergency vehicle:

      A simulation window showing a part of vehicle movements for a case where RSU are not used shown in fig. The part in bold frames in the center show the route taken by the emergency vehicle. It can be seen that ordinary vehicles have received a message. Number of the alternative roads is limited, many instance of congestion occurred[5].

      Item

      condition

      Scenario map size

      700X700

      Simulation time

      1800 seconds

      Number of emergency vehicle

      1

      Number of RSUs

      4

      Number of ordinary vehicle

      50,100,150,200,250,300,250,400

      450,and 500

      Starting point of the emergency

      vehicle

      Fire department

      Action of the emergency vehicle

      Travels from the starting point to the destination .

      Message transmission interval

      10 seconds

      Wireless communication

      system

      IEEE 802.11p

      Mobility models of ordinary

      vehicle

      Random way point

      Radio propagation model

      Two-ray ground or ITU-RP.1411

      Number of simulations

      10

      Table1.SIMULATION PARAMETER

    2. Requirements:

      Versatility: The warning system is versatility enough to support different potential application E.g., warn vehicle about an approaching or standing emergency vehicle but also support controlled switching of traffic lights[2].

      Timing: A driver can move her vehicle aside in time or traffic light can initiate a green phase after stopping the currents light switching cycle.

      Relevance: Warning should only be displayed to drivers or acted upon it relevant e.g., when driving towards the same intersection as the emergency vehicle but not when moving away from it

    3. SECURITY

    Warning message have to be authenticated and integrity protected so that only authorized emergency vehicle can generate then otherwise other vehicle could illegitimately send emergency vehicle warning message to gain a driving advantage.

      1. OMMUNICATION:

        In term of communication do not distinguish between vehicle and infrastructure nodes, but crate them equally[2]. The emergency vehicle now disseminates warning message periodically with updated information . two type of messages are used to reduce bandwidth requirements receives verify the signature before forwarding or processing the message and can ignore emergency warning messages from sending which lack the required emergency vehicle property.

        Local Relevance Decision:

        The current route of RN, and the driving direction can be derived from the ordering of the waypoint or node ides in relevance we are three classes for warning message.

        • Forwarding only RN and EV are moving in opposite directions or have divergent routes

        • Information only: RN and EV have divergent routes but d< r,i-e, d is a distance r is root RN is the range of EV and the siren is audible.

    E .Emergency vehicle warningplug-in;

    Other vehicle and road users run the emergency vehicle warning plug-in it also provides a map view with the current location to simulate a vehicle information system an emergency vehicle is close by a relevance decision component handles the received warning message , information only and active warning (forwarding only)[2].

    1. VANET ARCHITECTURES AND CHALLENGES

      VANET ARCHITECTURES

      As VANET have standards similar to those of MANET in the sense that the set of stations communicating through wireless channels with stand alone configuration without any fixed backbone support. The architecture of vehicular ad hoc network includes a various hardware and software components such as On Board Units. That are fixed in vehicles to transmit and receive message through wireless network .we find other device in roads Infrastructure communication are called RSU(Road Side Unit).these devices provide drivers and passengers with the latest information about any disturbances on roads[1].

    2. VANET challenges

      VANET related research challenges in infrastructures, communication , security application, and services[1]. These challenges are:

      • Highly dynamic topology

      • Mobility modeling

      • Signal attenuation

      • Hard delay constraints.

    B. Emergency vehicles signaling using VANET

    In case of approaching emergency vehicle like an ambulance or fire engine, there could be loss of life due to the delay in the arrival of the vehicle at the destination

    .The time taken for the ambulance real its destination will be minimal when compared to the time taken for it arrive in a normal scenario. This can be made an everyday situation with the use of VANET

  3. SIMULATION AND DISUCSSION

    1. Simulation environment:

      The open source tool NS2 (network simulator) [] is used to simulate the wireless data transmission . The FRSMOR is implemented in NS2, the programming language used is c

      ++ and TCL/OTCL. Two ray ground reflection model are used the propagation model . The number of vehicular node consider in this simulation between 200 and 450 in a 3000 X 3000m area. Node are travelling at an average velocity between ) and 60 km/h[1].

      Simulation Result: Heading routing protocols can be analyzed And compared on the basis of following performance metric.

      Packet Delivery ration: The ratio of the total packets delivered to the destinations. It is associated with the Qos and bandwidth utilization in the network .

      Normalized routing load: It is defined as the total number or routing packet to under the protocols routing overhead. Throughput: It is the sum of data rate to all the nodes in the network during a period .(bits per second).

      Delay: Delay or latency is the time taken by the date packets to trans verse from the source to the destination.

      Figure2. Protocols Delay

      0.02

      0.01

      0

      AODV

      DSR DSDV

      0 20 40

      TABLE 2.PROTOCOL COMPARSION.

      VANET

      No of node creation

      Protocol

      AODV(km/h)

      DSR(km/h)

      DSDV(km/h)

      No of nodes

      10

      20

      30

      10

      20

      30

      10

      20

      30

      No of pkts send

      655

      91

      574

      657

      571

      1019

      657

      563

      1019

      No of pkts recv

      647

      91

      480

      451

      566

      810

      451

      434

      810

      Pkt delivery ratio

      98.7786

      100

      83.6237

      68.6454

      99.1243

      79.4897

      68.6454

      77.087

      79.4897

      Control overhead

      118

      20

      261

      131

      165

      428

      131

      283

      428

      Normalized

      routing overhead

      0.18238

      0.21978

      0.54375

      0.290466

      0.291519

      0.528395

      0.29046

      6

      0.652074

      0.528395

      Delay

      0.0105476

      0.01805

      04

      0.00599829

      0.0061219

      0.0103757

      0.00812215

      0.00612

      19

      0.0085724

      7

      0.00812215

      Throughput

      27734.1

      42062.2

      20986.2

      19317.9

      24729.8

      35398.5

      19317.9

      18975

      35398.5

      Jitter

      0.153195

      0.09960

      99

      0.183179

      0.219202

      0.1724

      0.120288

      0.21920

      2

      0.224806

      0.120288

      No of pkts

      Dropped

      8

      0

      97

      206

      5

      209

      206

      129

      209

      300

      200

      100

      0

      10 Nodes

      20 Nodes

      30 Nodes

      AODV DSR DSDV

      Figure2. Dropped Packed

  4. CONCLSION

    In this paper on Routing protocol using emergency vehicle comparsion of reactive and proactive routing protocol in number of nodes created. This work on discussed solving traffic congestion application of VANET. This network are organizing by self communication of speed of vehicle and degrees of freedom in the movements. This architecture of mobile for vehicle like fire service vans, ambulance ,police patrols care in high priority in this work. VANET simulated the traffic roads with the help of AODV, DSDV, DSR protocols. The AODV routing is used best obtained for the VANET, because it is used to find the correct destination.

    AODV DSR DSDV

    10 Nodes

    20 Nodes

    30 Nodes

    150

    100

    50

    0

  5. REFERENCES

Figure3.Paket Delivery Ratio

50000

0

10 Nodes

20 Nodes

30 Nodes

AODVDSR DSDV

Figure4.Throughput

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    2. Andreas Buchenscheit, Florian Schaub, Frank kargl, anamichael weber A VANET-based Emergency Vehicle warning System IEEE.2009.

    3. Vandana Jayaraj, Hemanth.c Emergency Vehicle Signalling using VANETS IEEE.2015.

    4. Ganesh S.Khekare Design of Emergency System for Intelligent Traffic System Using VANET IEEE 2014.

    5. Yama Moroi , Kazumasa Jakami A Method of Securing Priority-use Routes for Emergency Vehicle Using Inter- Vehicle and Vehicle-road Communication 2015.

    6. Pandi Vijayakumar, Maria Azees, Arputharaj Kannan and Lazarus Jegatha Deborah Dual Authentication and key Management Techniques for Secure Data Transmission in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks2016

    7. A. Dhamgaye and N. Chavhan, Survey on security challenges in VANET, Int. J. Comput. Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 8896, 2013

    8. M. Watfa, d., Advances in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Developments and Challenges. IGI Global, 2010.

    9. B. T. Sharef, R. A. Alsaqour, et M. Ismail, Vehicular communication ad hoc routing protocols: A survey, J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 40, p.363-396, avr. 2014.

    10. C. Perkins et E. Royer, Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing, Paper presented at the Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, New Orleans, Louisiana, p. 25-26, fvr-1999.

    11. P. Papadimitratos, L. Buttyan, T. Holczer, E. Schoch, J. Freudiger, M. Raya, Z. Ma, F. Kargl, A. Kung, and J.-P. Hubaux, Secure vehicular communication systems: Design and architecture, IEEE Communications, November 2008.

    12. Buchenscheit, Andreas, Florian Schaub, Frank Kargl, and Michael Weber. "A VANET-based emergency vehicle warning system." In Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2009 IEEE, pp. 1-8. IEEE, 2009

    13. Sou, Sok-Ian. "Modeling emergency messaging for car accident over dichotomized headway model in vehicular Ad- hoc networks." IEEE transactions on communications 61.2 (2013): 802-812.

    14. Perkins, C.E., Belding-Royer, E. M., Das, S.R., Ad hoc on- demand distance vector (AODV) routing, IEEE Personal Communications, pp.16-28, 2001.

    15. Md. Shohidul Islam, Md. Naim Hider An Extensive Comparison among DSDV, DSR and AODV Protocols in MANET, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 15 No.2, February 2011.

    16. Ola Salman Raghid Morcel Obada Al Zoubi Imad Elhajj Ayman Kayssi Ali Chehab Analysis of Topology Based Routing Protocols for VANETs in Different Environments 2016 IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET).

    17. C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, "Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing," in 2nd IEEE Workshopon Mobile Computing Systems and Applications,February 25-26, 1999 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, pp. 90-100.

    18. D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, "Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks," in Mobile computing, ed: Springer, 1996, pp. 153-181.

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