Assessment of Quality of Ground Water in Kasaba Bawada Kolhapur

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Assessment of Quality of Ground Water in Kasaba Bawada Kolhapur

1 2

Patil Ajit A S. M. Bhosale

1Research Student 2Assistant Professor Department of Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur,

Maharashtra, India

Abstract: Water is one of the most crucial components for all forms of life. Quality of water is equally important to the quantity available. Only 2 % as fresh water in the form of surface and subsurface water bodies and it usable for the human consumption. So when we consume water its quality measurements are necessary and management should be done in systematic path. Water quality is directly related to the physical, chemical, biological and radiological property of water, these properties of water are affected due to the pollution of water due to various human activities. Depend on the activities; disposal of pollutant in the water bodies are done that changes the standard quantity of parameters in water. This research paper deals with the studies carried out to assess the Ground Water Quality at Kasaba-Bawda village in Karveer Tahasil of Kolhapur District of Maharashtra. Water samples from ten discrete locations comprised of Open Wells, Tube-Wells and a Fixed Masonry Reservoirs were chosen based on their distance from polluting source identified were selected for the Ground Water sampling to study the impacts of solid waste dumping on the Ground Water Quality of publically available drinking water sources at selective locations. The quality was assessed in terms of major parameters, like pH, turbidity, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, etc. the water from the water sources located in the vicinity of solid waste dumping sites were slightly polluted making the water unfit for drinking.

Keywords: Groundwater, Water Pollution, Water quality, Surface water, solid waste, Tube well.

INTRODUCTION

The modern civilization accompanied by the rapid growth of population and industrialization has created the situation of huge amount of solid waste generation in cities and towns. All over the world today the cities are vexed with the problem of disposal and management of generated solid waste, In Kolhapur city the solid wastes are collected, Transported and disposed at the dumping site by the Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (kMC) authority. The present dumping site at Kasaba bawada dumping area Kolhapur. The leachate is produced from the decomposition and squeezing of wastes and by water that has entered the dumping site from external sources. It carries a number of dissolved and suspected impurities as it moves down through the wastes. The leachate generated from the MSW-Municipal Solid Waste dumping site can seep slowly through the layers of soil beneath and percolates down to the ground water rendering it unsuitable for the designated use. The leachate pollution can cover wide areas depending on the aquifer characteristics. The contamination of ground water due to MSW material has

been a serious concern to us. The present study aims at evaluation of the ground water quality at different distances of MSW dumping site at Kasaba bawada dumping area as well as to ascertain the contamination of ground water due to MSW disposal. In order to know the groundwater quality of the village, we have identified 10 sampling stations from dug wells and bore wells covering entire kasaba bawada and adjacent villages of study area. This contaminated water, in kasaba bawada going to high rate of health hazards. Bad quality of water produces diseases in this area. Polluted Water from suger industry and dumping site, directly discharge to water body. Zoom project also waste is burn and incineration take place at sight itself. In rainy season this polluted water and air mix with groundwater and surface water and water quality gets polluted so, identification of source and analysis of quality water is very important in this region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

For the present study of municipal solid waste, the Kasaba Bawada dumping site near Kolhapur was selected. Ground water sources at different distances from the fringe of the dumping site were selected for the study. Five well water samples and five bore well water samples were collected from different distances within of dumping sites. After measuring physical parameters like pH, temperature, colour the samples collected from the sampling sites were brought the laboratory for chemical analysis. Chemical parameters like turbidity, DO, hardness, Nitrate, TS, TDS, TSS, Chloride, Alkalinity, sulphate, calcium are estimated. The analysis was performed by following standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.

METHODOLOGY

In order to mitigate the problem, following approach is adopted:

To assess the water quality of Kasaba Bawada for parametric quantity as follows

  1. Collection of water sample:

    For the present investigation along the stretch of kasaba bawada dumping area ten water testing stations selected. five well water samples to be specific: D.y.patil well, krushi farm well, rajaram mill well, bedekar well, khole patil well .five bore well water samples to be specific: Maratha colony, biranje panand area, wadkar galli, line bazar, D.y.patil well.

  2. To analysis the factors affecting to water resources

  3. The project was based on testing the quality of water

    .samples were collected from bore wells, wells, near kasaba bawada area. 1st sample after the rainy season and 2nd

    sample in winter season and third sample in summer season.

  4. To collect water samples and analyze its physical, chemical, parameters.

    1. DUMPING SITE B) DUMPING SITE WATER SPRINK RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

WINTER SEASON WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

D.Y.PATIL WELL

KRUSHI FARM WELL

RAJARAM MILL WELL

BEDEKAR WELL

KHOLE PATIL WELL

TEST

pH

7.6

7.98

8

8.5

7.25

Turbidity

1.2 NTU

0.9 NTU

1.3 NTU

0.8 NTU

0.9 NTU

Temp

27

26

26

26

26

DO

3 mg/l

3.772 mg/l

2.7 mg/l

5.3 mg/l

5.42 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

312 mg/l

228 mg/l

416 mg/l

180 mg/l

220 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

98 mg/l

72 mg/l

448 mg/l

136 mg/l

80 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

304 mg/l

240 mg/l

272 mg/l

292 mg/l

236 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

120

68

135

103

77

nitrate

37.25

16.5

50

9.2

9.375

sulphate

845

240

388

290

206

Total Dissolved solids

416 mg/l

271 mg/l

1073 mg/l

432 mg/l

340 mg/l

Total suspended solids

335 mg/l

212 mg/l

415 mg/l

310 mg/l

220 mg/l

Total solids

751 mg/l

483 mg/l

1488mg/l

742 mg/l

560 mg/l

WINTER SEASON BORE WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

PADMA PATHAK COLONY

MARATHA COLONY

DATTA MADIR

BIRANJE PANAD ROAD

D.Y PATIL FARM

TEST

pH

7.96

7.68

7.99

7.12

7.49

Turbidity

0.1 NTU

0.8 NTU

1.8 NTU

1.7 NTU

0.1 NTU

Temp

22

23

22

24

25

DO

2.11 mg/l

2.64 mg/l

2.35 mg/l

3 mg/l

3.21 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

164 mg/l

220 mg/l

116 mg/l

468 mg/l

380 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

64 mg/l

58 mg/l

102 mg/l

1278 mg/l

138 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

192 mg/l

292 mg/l

288 mg/l

436 mg/l

308 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

110

56

88

70

160

nitrate

2.586

3.2

3.373

14.9

26.85

sulphate

12.08

18.83

34.12

588

584

Total Dissolved solids

228 mg/l

326 mg/l

344 mg/l

1888 mg/l

496 mg/l

Total suspended solids

206 mg/l

212 mg/l

288 mg/l

1027 mg/l

312 mg/l

Total solids

434 mg/l

538 mg/l

632 mg/l

2915 mg/l

808 mg/l

SUMMER SEASON WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

D.Y.PATIL WELL

KRUSHI FARM WELL

RAJARAM MILL WELL

BEDEKAR WELL

KHOLE PATIL WELL

TEST

pH

7.9

8.2

8.6

8.9

7.25

Turbidity

1.3 NTU

0.7 NTU

1.1 NTU

0.7 NTU

0.8 NTU

Temp

29

28

28

27

27

DO

3.2 mg/l

3.54 mg/l

2.31 mg/l

4.56 mg/l

5.12 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

321mg/l

252 mg/l

442 mg/l

212 mg/l

238 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

88 mg/l

90 mg/l

432 mg/l

172 mg/l

91 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

312 mg/l

265 mg/l

258 mg/l

288 mg/l

270 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

106

74

130

109

70

nitrate

34.12

17.10

48

7.38

10.28

sulphate

890

190

394

283

188

Total Dissolved solids

432 mg/l

260 mg/l

986 mg/l

456 mg/l

370 mg/l

Total suspended solids

314 mg/l

248 mg/l

388 mg/l

360 mg/l

296 mg/l

Total solids

746 mg/l

508 mg/l

1374mg/l

816mg/l

666 mg/l

SUMMER SEASON BORE WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

PADMA PATHAK COLONY

MARATHA COLONY

DATTA MADIR

BIRANJE PANAD ROAD

D.Y PATIL FARM

TEST

pH

7.8

7.98

8.12

7.35

7.22

Turbidity

0.3 NTU

0.6 NTU

1.6 NTU

1.8 NTU

0.4 NTU

Temp

26

26

26

27

28

DO

2.1 mg/l

3.32 mg/l

2.12 mg/l

3.45 mg/l

3.12 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

153 mg/l

286 mg/l

196 mg/l

437 mg/l

412 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

98 mg/l

65 mg/l

88 mg/l

1126 mg/l

194 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

175 mg/l

314 mg/l

321mg/l

423 mg/l

288 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

100

78

102

66

125

nitrate

2.9

3.2

3.722

16.45

27.10

sulphate

11.73

16.72

29.82

510

614

Total Dissolved solids

208 mg/l

344 mg/l

323 mg/l

1765 mg/l

512 mg/l

Total suspended solids

202 mg/l

276 mg/l

304 mg/l

1112 mg/l

438 mg/l

Total solids

410 mg/l

620 mg/l

627 mg/l

2877 mg/l

950 mg/l

MONSOON SEASON WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

D.Y.PATIL WELL

KRUSHI FARM WELL

RAJARAM MILL WELL

BEDEKAR WELL

KHOLE PATIL WELL

TEST

pH

7.46

7.44

7.28

7.30

7.15

Turbidity

0.3 NTU

0 NTU

0 NTU

12.5 NTU

0 NTU

Temp

28

27

26

25

25

DO

1.06 mg/l

3.86 mg/l

2.06 mg/l

5.34 mg/l

3 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

320 mg/l

224 mg/l

876 mg/l

268 mg/l

260 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

104 mg/l

48 mg/l

510 mg/l

182 mg/l

80 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

336 mg/l

304 mg/l

340 mg/l

368 mg/l

328 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

130

50

113

88

72

nitrate

35.75

16.75

48

7.22

9.10

sulphate

910

230

440

290

218

Total Dissolved solids

471 mg/l

299 mg/l

1149 mg/l

479 mg/l

380 mg/l

Total suspended solids

212 mg/l

263 mg/l

415 mg/l

180 mg/l

310 mg/l

Total solids

683 mg/l

562 mg/l

1564 mg/l

659 mg/l

690 mg/l

MONSOON SEASON BORE WELL WATER SAMPLE

SAMPLE

PADMA PATHAK COLONY

MARATHA COLONY

DATTA MADIR

BIRANJE PANAD ROAD

D.Y PATIL FARM

TEST

pH

6.8

7.01

7.67

6.81

7.35

Turbidity

1.4 NTU

0 NTU

0.9 NTU

1.5 NTU

8.2 NTU

Temp

23

23

24

25

26

DO

4.6 mg/l

4.8 mg/l

3.2 mg/l

2.1 mg/l

1.6 mg/l

Total Hardness (as CaCo3)

232 mg/l

240 mg/l

200 mg/l

1400 mg/l

148 mg/l

Chloride (as Cl)

38 mg/l

58 mg/l

78 mg/l

1088 mg/l

52 mg/l

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCo3

248 mg/l

336 mg/l

248 mg/l

500 mg/l

116 mg/l

Ca (mg/l)

121

66

52

64

140

nitrate

2.386

3.6

4.284

15.75

27.75

sulphate

19.7

26.8

40.32

650

550

Total Dissolved solids

242 mg/l

328 mg/l

331 mg/l

1733 mg/l

267 mg/l

Total suspended solids

229 mg/l

225 mg/l

212 mg/l

1027 mg/l

197 mg/l

Total solids

471 mg/l

553 mg/l

543 mg/l

2760 mg/l

464 mg/l

Fig 1 Comparison of Ph. values of well water

10

8

6 WINTER

4 SUMMER

2 MONSOON

0

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

Fig 2 comparison of Ph. of bore well water

8.5

8

7.5

7

6.5

6

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

8.5

8

7.5

7

6.5

6

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

15

10

5

15

10

5

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

Fig 3 Comparison of turbidity of well water

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

0

0

Fig 4 Comparison of turbidity of bore well water

10

10

5

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

5

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

0

0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

Fig 5 comparison of hardness of well water sample

1000

800

600

400

200

0

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

1000

800

600

400

200

0

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM

MILL

BEDEKAR

KHOLE PATIL

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM

MILL

BEDEKAR

KHOLE PATIL

Fig 6 comparison of hardness of bore well water sample

1500

1000

500

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

1500

1000

500

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

0

0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

Fig 7 comparison of chloride of well water sample

600

400

200

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

600

400

200

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

0

0

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

Fig 8 comparison of chloride of bore well water sample

1500

1000

500

0

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

WINTER SUMMER MONSOON

Fig 9 comparison of alkalinity of well water sample

400

300

200

100

0

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

400

300

200

100

0

WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

Fig 10 comparison of alkalinity of bore well water sample

600

400

200

0

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

WINTER SUMMER MONSOON

Fig 11 comparison of TDS of well water sample

1500

1000

500

0

D.Y.PATIL KRUSHI FARM RAJARAM MILL BEDEKAR KHOLE PATIL

WINTER SUMMER MONSOON

Fig 12 comparison of TDS of bore well water sample

2000

1500

1000

500

Series 1

Series 2

Series 3

2000

1500

1000

500

Series 1

Series 2

Series 3

0

0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

RESULTS

The results give an insight into the ground water quality of collected samples. All the samples were colourless and odourless.

  1. The pH value of well water was observed in the range of

    7.15 to 8.9 at this site and pH value of bore well water was observed in the range of 6.8 to 8.12 at this site. The pH values were within the prescribed limit of 6.5-8.5 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  2. The turbidity of well water samples was observed in the range of 0 to 12.5 and turbidity of bore well water samples was observed in the range of 0 to 8.2. The turbidity values were within the prescribed limit of 1-5 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  3. The temperature of well water samples was observed in the range of 25°C to 29°C and temperature of bore well water samples was observed in the range of 22°C to 28°C

  4. Dissolved Oxygen ( D.O) of well water was observed in the range of 1.06 to 5.4 mg/L . Dissolved Oxygen ( D.O) of bore well water was observed in the range of 1.6 to 4.8 mg/L the values were below 5 mg/L for the nearest samples of the dumping site which clearly indicate the pollution due to increased content of decomposable organic matter. D.O is dependent on the physical, chemical and biological activities prevailing in the water body and varies with the water temperature and altitudes.

  5. The total hardness of well water was observed in the range of 180 to 876 mg/L. The total hardness of bore well water was observed in the range of 148 to 1400 mg/L. The total hardness values were within the prescribed limit of 200-600 mg/L according to I.S 1983.The total hardness is generally attributed by the calcium and magnesium concentration.

  6. The chloride concentration in well water samples were found to be in range 48 to 510 mg/L. The chloride concentration in bore well water samples were found to be in range 38 to 1278 mg/L The concentration of chloride in the samples were attributed by the dissolution of chlorinated soluble salts present in solid waste leachate. The chloride values were within the prescribed limit of 250-1000 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  7. The alkalinity of well water was observed in the range of 236 to 368 mg/L. The alkalinity of bore well water was observed in the range of 116 to 500 mg/L. The alkalinity values were within the prescribed limit of 200 to 600 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  8. The calcium content of well water was ranged from 50 to 135 mg/L. The calcium content of bore well was ranged

from 52 to 160 mg/L. The calcium values were within the prescribed limit of 75 to 200 according to I.S 10500-2012. 9 The nitrate content of well water was ranged from 7.22 to 50 mg/L. The nitrate content of bore well water was ranged from 2.38 to 27.7 mg/L. The nitrate values were within the prescribed limit of 45 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  1. The sulphate content of well water was ranged from 188 to 910 mg/L. The sulphate content of bore well water was ranged from 11.73 to 650 mg/L. The sulphate values were within the prescribed limit of 200to 400 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  2. The Total Solids (TS) and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration decreased with the increase in distance of sample water sources from the dumping site. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration of well water was observed in the range of 260 to 1149 mg/L. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration of bore well water was observed in the range of 208 to 1888 mg/L. The (TDS) values were within the prescribed limit of 500 to 2000 according to I.S 10500-2012.

  3. Total suspended solids (TSS) concentration of well water was ranged from 180 to 415 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) concentration of bore well water was ranged from 197 to 1112 mg/L.

  4. Total solids (TS) concentration of well water was ranged from 483 to 1564 mg/L. Total solids (TS) concentration of bore well water was ranged from 410 to 2915 mg/L

    CONCLUSION

    It is also observed from the analysis that the ground water sample from D.y.patil well, bedekar well, rajaram mill area well water is not reasonable for drinking purpose legitimately without appropriate treatment. biraje panand bore well and D.y.patil bore well contain high amount of hardness, TDS, sulphates, so this water is not fit for drinking purpose. It is also observed from the analysis that the ground water samples nearest the dumping site was beyond the permissible limit and is not suitable for drinking purpose.

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