 Open Access
 Authors : Alpesh Kumar Dauda, Ambarish Panda
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV11IS05058
 Volume & Issue : Volume 11, Issue 05 (ICEI – 2023)
 Published (First Online): 07072023
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Application Of Intelligent Scheduling To Optimal Power Dispatch Of Wind Integrated Power System
Alpesh Kumar Dauda*
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Sambalpur University Institute of Information Technology Burla, Odisha, India
alpesh.d123@gmail.com
Ambarish Panda
Department. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Sambalpur University Institute of Information Technology
Burla, Odisha, India
Abstract Due to the unpredictability of wind flow, accurate modelling of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and their integration with traditional fossil fuelbased generation and the grid is essential. This research addresses the imperative issue of modeling the combined operation of a windthermal generation systems within an optimal power flow framework. The objective extends beyond cost minimization to include secure and stable voltage operation. To achieve this, a comprehensive approach is adopted, considering the dynamic nature of wind power generation and its impact on the overall system. To optimize the suitably specified objective, hybrid algorithms (HA) and Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms have been applied. The result shows that HA outperforms ABC algorithm in terms of finding the best solution for the configuration under consideration. IEEE30 bus power system is used for the analysis.
Keywords – Wind integration; voltage security; power system operation; OPF; optimization.
.

INTRODUCTION
The inconsistency of the WECS output poses significant scheduling issues for conventional generation units, potentially putting the system at risk. The authors have addressed the issue of wind power variability in [1]. In [2, 3, 4], the authors present a framework of associated costs related to wind power in wind integrated systems during under and over forecasts. Optimal power flow (OPF) problems have lately been handled using a variety of traditional and algorithms based on intelligent techniques [212]. All of these studies are aimed at resolving the OPF problem in thermal generation systems as well as minimizing system running costs and other difficulties. However, the technology under consideration in this proposed work is a wind+thermal generation system. Using a differential evolution approach, the author in [5]
1
explores the OPF solutions for a conventional power generation system. The authors in [6] have presented a comparative evaluation of the economics and voltage security of BES integrated WP+PV+Thermal hybrid configurations with variable renewable energy penetration using modified Bacteria Foraging algorithm. In [7] proposes a Moth Swarm Algorithm (MSA) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) for determining the optimal control variable settings for the OPF problem in a power system. In [8, 9], the artificial bee colony (ABC) method is used as the basic optimizer for the control of the power system variable modifications in the OPF problem. Both continuous and discrete variables are included in the control variables. Hydropower is favoured as a versatile energy source to make up for the unpredictability of solar and wind energy [19].Panda et al. [20] used largescale energy storage facilities in conjunction with intelligent scheduling techniques to simultaneously lower power loss, operational costs, and enhance voltage security for various hybrid power systems.
The suggested system's design challenge is framed as an optimization problem in an OPF framework [1], aiming to keep a desirable voltage profile throughout system operation while reducing the cost of WECS and conventional generators.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
A cost component could be added to the system generation cost to account for the intermittency of
331
wind flow. This supplementary component, in addition to the generation cost, is aimed to reduce
=
( ) () (6)
the cost of operation in the event of an unbalance between available and utilized wind power.
The problem is formulated as follows, taking into account all of the preceding facts:
Minimize
= + (1)
The cost of windthermal power generator is
in eq.(6), is the penalty cost coefficient and
() is the probability density function of the
wind power [4], also known as Weibull distribution
function. is the scheduled, is the rated, and
is the available wind power from the kth wind
power generator. Cost of over estimation may be
expressed as
( ) = ( )
represented by F1, whereas the cost of intermittent wind power generation is represented by F2.
=
) () (7)
(
The above components are mathematically
interpreted as follows:
The following constraints apply to the above mentioned objective function, given by (1).
Ng Nw
=
(2)
Pgj
j
+ Pwk
k
= Ploss
+ Pload
(8)
The thermal units are denoted by subscript j, Ng Nw
whereas the wind units are denoted by subscripts k
and w. The cost of producing thermal energy is the first term in F1. These terms are explained as
Qgj + Qwk = Qloss + Qload (9)
j k
Pgj in Pgj Pgj ax (10)
= + + (3)
where Pgj is the power output of the jth generator,
m
gj
Qmin Qgj
m
gj
Qmax (11)
min V
Vmax (12)
while aj, bj and cj are the jth thermal units cost Vj
j j
max
coefficients.
Pwk Pwk
(13)
min Qwk Qmax (14)
Table.1 provides more information on the cost
coefficients.
Qwk wk
= [() + ,,
+ , ,] (4)
The various components of F2 can be described as
follows. The cost of purchasing wind power from a wind power producer is the 1st term of F2, the cost of underestimating available wind power is the 2nd term, and the cost of overestimating available wind power is the 3rd term.
() = (5)
The schedule power output of the kth wind unit is
denoted by Pwk, and dk is the direct cost coefficient associated with the kth wind generator. Equation (6) can be used to express the cost of underestimating available wind power.
,, = ( )
2
In thermal generators, real power and reactive
power are represented as Pgj, Qgj respectively, in the preceding formulas (8)(14), while in wind
power units, the corresponding power are Pwk, Qwk.

APPLICATION OF OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization method based on the honeybee swarm's intelligent foraging behavior [8, 9]. Both discrete and continuous variables are included in the control variable. ABC algorithm is a population based algorithm that was inspired by the way honeybee swarms stumble upon their feed. The honeybee swarm is divided into two groups by this algorithm: worker bees and nonworker bees, which include observer bees and explorer bees. At regular intervals, spectator bees form around the worker
332
bees. The created spectator bees are depicted in the next iterationif they locate the perfect fitness value among all the reproduced bees. The authors in [9] discussed a detailed flow chart that includes an explanation.

HYBRID ALGORITHM
The Hybrid Algorithm (HA) is created by combining GA's mutation techniques with a modified BFA strategy, first presented in [17] and later implemented in [2,3,4], in order to increase the optimization efficiency of both algorithms in particular specific applications. Reference in [17] can be used to access the original version of BFA. The enhanced and new version of BFA is comparable to the novel algorithm, with the exception of a few changes detailed in [2]. The authors in [12] provide a detailed explanation of the steps involved in HA. A comparison of HA and PSO was carried out in [12] to indicate the efficacy of Hybrid algorithm. In this work, the capability of HA is examined with ABC algorithm in a similar manner like [12] in order to better understand the operation in a hybrid power system.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The benchmark test system, the IEEE30 bus power system, was used to validate the results[18]. Wind farms are installed on the fifth, eleventh, and thirteenth buses, replacing conventional generators. Each wind farm (WF) is made up of a number of wind turbines, or more precisely, wind turbine generators (WTG)[1314]. The wind farm at bus no. 5 in this project consists of 20 WTG (one and all 2.5 MW), having a 50megawatt (MW) capacity. In the same way, WF at bus numbers 11 and 13 has 7
algorithm. Figure 1 shows the convergence characteristics produced by GA and HA for the aforementioned objective function. The HA convergence point is 3081.12 $/hr, whereas the ABC algorithm convergence point is 3086. 58 $/hr. Thus, the effectiveness of HA is clearly portrayed in terms of obtaining most economic operating cost. It also indicates that annual savings in operating cost is around 4.78296 104$/yr.
During the UE scenario, a voltage security analysis of system performance was performed under typical operating conditions. The voltage profile of the system has been illustrated in Fig.2 using the optimal generating schedule determined with HA and ABC algorithm separately. It clearly demonstrates that the HA optimised schedule outperforms the ABC algorithm schedule in terms of maintaining a better and more effective voltage profile on practically all bus in the system.
Hybrid Algorithm
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
3240
3220
3200
3180
Operating Cost ($/h)
3160
3140
3120
3100
3080
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Num of generations
Fig.1.Convergence Characteristics of operating cost
1.06
Hybrid Algorithm
WTG with a capacity of 5 MW, totaling 35 MW. Each wind farm (WF) is made up of multiple wind turbines and doublefed induction generators (DFIGs). The optimal schedule is obtained by solving OPF equations to optimise the objective function stated in the preceding section. A comparison analysis is conducted on two different optimization approaches applied to the objective function. Table 1 shows the optimum cost of generation determined with both HA and ABC algorithm. Table 2 lists the generating cost
1.04
1.02
voltage magnitude (p.u.)
1
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
5 10 15 20 25 30
Bus number
coefficients for the thermal units. The entire cost of power generation in the windthermal system is calculated for the goal indicated in (1) and optimised independently using HA and ABC
Fig.2. System voltage profile with HA and ABC algorithm
optimized schedule
The HA improved generation schedule, as shown in both figures, has resulted in a significant increase in
3 333
system voltage and a reduction in total system operation cost.
TABLE1.OPTIMAL CONVERGENCE OF COST($/HR)
Method
Cost
HA
3081.12 $/hr
ABC
algorithm
3086. 58 $/hr
TABLE2. COST COEFFICIENTS OF THERMAL GENERATING UNITS
Cost coefficients
Generator No.
aj
bj
cj
MIN LIMIT (MW)
MAX LIMIT (MW)
1
0.00974
2.5
0
50
200
2
0.0174
1.75
0
20
80
3
0.0624
1.0
0
10
40
V. CONCLUSION
In view of the volatility and volatile nature of available wind energy, it is important to plan power generation intelligently and effectively, especially if underestimated. This study seeks to achieve ideal voltagesecure operation while minimizing power generation costs.. In this case, HA and ABC algorithm approaches are used to test the running test system in operation. Both strategies are utilized to find an ideal operating schedule of the IEEE30 bus power system in order to validate their effectiveness. In terms of achieving better convergence characteristics and delivering optimal generation scheduling that may provide an acceptable voltage for secure system operation, the HA is determined to be superior to the ABC algorithm. As a result, HA could be a potential solution for complicated power system analysis as well as a decisionmaking tool for power system operators in realtime operations.
4
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