- Open Access
- Authors : Dr. Attel Manjunath, Pranesh K G, Ullas Sujay, Rohit B, Shashank V J, Soham Ambdas Argi
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS10006
- Volume & Issue : ACME – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 10)
- Published (First Online): 13-08-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Anti Lock and Regenerative Braking System in Two wheelers
Dr. Attel Manjunath, Pranesh K G Department of Mechanical Engineering Acharya Institute of Technology Bengaluru, India
Ullas Sujay, Rohit B, Shashank V J, Soham Ambdas Argi
Department of Mechanical Engineering Acharya Institute of Technology Bengaluru, India
Abstract Many of the road accidents are caused due to hard breaking system, which causes the wheels to lockup. In such cases the driver will not have control over the vehicle steering. Anti-Lock Braking System prevents wheels from being locked up during braking by using a non-continuous form of braking known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) braking. This system provides the driver at any time to control the vehicle even while braking. Because of ABS, the wheels will get better grip on tricky road surfaces like icy or wet road surfaces and the stopping distances also reduce significantly.
In the breaking system, most of the kinetic energy applied during braking is generally lost in the form of heat due to friction between the brake pads. By using a Regenerative Braking technique this energy can be recovered. The excess energy in this technique is stored temporarily in the capacitor banks before it gets converted into heat energy and lost. This system extends the life of the battery by recharging the battery utilizing the stored energy. With a single battery charge, the mileage of the electric vehicle also increases and travels extra distance. Together, these two approaches helps to make electric vehicle more energy efficient, easier to use and safer, thereby preventing and avoiding the number of accidents.
An electric vehicle can be described as a vehicle which runs using an onboard electric generator like electric battery or a hydrogen fuel cell as its primary source of energy. An electric vehicle uses electric motors (either ac or dc) to move. In an age where fossil fuels like petrol, diesel are diminishing as well as getting costlier, Electric Vehicles hold a lot of importance today. Electric vehicles offer us an alternative to the vehicles driven using fossil fuels, which pollute the environment and also are getting costlier. Electric vehicles provide a smoother operation, stronger acceleration and are quieter as compared to conventional vehicles with Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).
An electric vehicle provides a clear alternative to the internal combustion engine vehicles which run on fossil fuels like petrol and diesel. The fuels are depleting fast and alternative energy resources must be used as the consumption of fossil fuels goes on increasing every year due to usage of more vehicle but the production of these fuels is not keeping pace with the increasing demand. An electric vehicle provides many benefits as mentioned above and is environmentally friendly. Because of such benefits of electric vehicles, it is important that an electric vehicle be given the latest systems
in braking, as it is an important part in the use of any vehicle. Braking systems like ABS and regenerative braking which will make the electric vehicle safer and easier to use as well as make it energy efficient should be implemented in the vehicles. If such systems are incorporated in electric vehicles and their advantages are seen by all, then the use and sale of electric vehicles all over the world will increase, especially in India which has a huge market for vehicles and is suffering from the ill effects of pollution due to vehicles in major cities. Increase in the number of electric vehicles will be beneficial to the society and to the environment. Also, wide use of Anti-lock Braking System will lead to fewer accidents on the streets and will save many lives by preventing many accidents.
OBJECTIVES The objective of the project is
To build a circuit for Anti-Lock Braking System which will prevent the skidding of wheels during hard braking and keep the control of the vehicle at all times with the driver in Electric Vehicles by keeping the slip ratio in the control region.
To include a Regenerative Braking sub-system which will recover lost energy in the circuit and give it back to the battery.
To analyse the performance of the entire system to check its utility and confirm that Antilock Braking System along with regeneration makes an electric vehicle easier and safer to use as well as makes it more energy efficient.
BRAKING SYSTEM IN VEHICLES
Brake Systems in electric vehicles can be of different types. In some vehicles, conventional friction brakes are used. In such systems, continuous braking is applied which produces friction and stops the wheels from rotating, thereby slowing down the vehicle. In such brake systems, the brake pads heat up and this leads to energy wastage in the form of heat. Another type of brake system is the Anti-Lock Brake System. Here, continuous braking is not applied. Instead, a non continuous braking pattern is applied which slows or stops the vehicle as needed. Such a system is more efficient than the conventional braking system and gives a superior
performance. Another type of braking system is the regenerative braking system. In such a system, the motor itself or any other circuit works to apply the brakes by controlling the current in the motor circuit. If an ac motor is used, then during braking it works as a generator and gives back energy to the battery and slows down the vehicle at the same time. Any other circuit can also be used to divert the motor current during braking so that the vehicle slows down. Such types of systems also recharge the battery and help in braking. But such brake systems cannot be used solely as they can slow down the vehicle but generally do not bring it to a complete stop. Hence such systems are used in conjunction with conventional friction brakes or Anti-Lock Braking System.
ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM
Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) is one of the braking systems used in electric vehicles which can replace the conventional friction braking system by using a non- continuous braking pattern by taking into consideration factors like vehicle speed, deceleration, road conditions etc. ABS gives a superior braking performance as compared to conventional friction braking and also saves energy. In ABS, the problem of wheel lock up due to hard braking does not occur and hence the name anti-lock. The problem of directional lock up too is resolved in ABS. ABS gives directional control of the vehicle at all times to the driver even while braking. ABS operates in the low slip region so that the wheels have more traction with the road surface and hence wheel lock up does not occur. In advanced systems, multiple sensors detect the wheel speed individually and microcontrollers can know if a wheel is about to lock up. Accordingly the braking pattern is changed. The braking pattern in ABS is a non-continuous pwm wave due to which braking occurs efficiently and heat is not generated as much as in the conventional brakes.
REGENRATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM
Regenerative Braking is an energy recovery mechanism which saves energy which would have been otherwise wasted as heat due to friction while braking, and stores it in a capacitor bank or a flywheel setup temporarily. This energy is then given back to the battery thereby charging it. In Regenerative braking, an electric vehicles uses the motor as a generator when the brakes are applied, to transfer kinetic energy from the wheels which is wasted during braking into an energy storage device like capacitor bank The energy wasted as heat can be up to 30% of the total energy and even if some portion of this energy is saved then it can be utilized to run the electric vehicle further.
Initial Inspection of Normal Wheel
Fig 1 Normal wheel of Pulsar -150
We inspected the front wheel & setup of the vehicle on which the RABS was to be installed.
We noted the required dimensions & parameters that were required for us to design the new updated wheel setup with RABS installed in it. Preparing the Generator to be installed in Wheel Hub
We separated the Rotor and Stator of 230V BLDC Motor Generally used in the Washing Machines. The stator part of the rotor was used to make a stationary case which was attached to the body of Vehicle.
Fig 2. Stator of BLDC motor
The Rotor was drilled with Holes of 5mm dia at 16 different positions required on the cylindrical surface & the Neodymium Magnets were installed in order to convert the motor into Synchronous Generator.
Fig 3 Rotor of BLDC Motor under Drilling Process
A Wheel of which had greater width in the Hub and also suited the Bike to be installed was purchased and it was inspected to decide if the wheel was good enough to undergo the further processes.
Fig 4 New Wheel Set Up
The wheel setup under gone thread cutting in order to get some space to attach the rotor inside the wheel. The inner surface was grinded and covered with insulation paper in order to avoid grounding.
Fig 5. Wheel Rim under Going Wire cutting Process
After the wheel hub obtained required dimensions and was ready the modified rotor was wielded inside the wheel hub and the outer case of the wheel too was wielded and the hub was closed
Fig 6 Rotor attached to the Rim after completion of Design
The wheel was ready to be installed to the bike. Now the stator was to be fixed So a Case was designed to mount the stator so that it is rigidly fixed inside the hub and also allows the rotor to rotate freely whenever the vehicle is in motion
Once the work on each Major parts were done. We assembled them and installed it to vehicle. During the installation process itself the required Circuiting process was done and the project was ready as desired with all the Electrical and Mechanical components
Fig 7 Newly Designed wheel attached to the bike after complete circuiting
The Anti-Lock Braking system in the vehicle avoids the wheel lock up and offers better control to the driver, which reduces the possibility of accidents. The ABS reduces the stopping distance on icy or wet road conditions compared to conventional friction braking system.
Due to less heat being produced during braking, the life of the brake pads will be significantly longer. ABS takes into consideration various factors before giving the braking pattern and therefore the electric vehicle will stay safe within the stable slip region with no chance for a wheel being locked up. The Regenerative circuit discussed above stores the energy and returns it to the battery that would otherwise be wasted. The buck-boost converter depends on signals from the microcontroller and operates in real time so that the energy can be stored at the exact moment of deceleration and can be returned back during the few seconds of acceleration. The capacitor bank also charges and discharges very quickly so that the flow of energy can be faster and more efficient without much losses. This makes a battery last longer as well as allows an electric vehicle to travel further on a single battery charge i.e. the mileage of the electric vehicle increases substantially. Regeneration along with Anti-Lock Braking System makes an electric vehicle energy efficient as well as safer and easier to use and proves to be a vital part in the proper functioning of an electric vehicle.
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