 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1235
 Authors : Rameshkumar Mishra, P M Deoghare
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS050038
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 05 (May 2014)
 Published (First Online): 08052014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Analysis of Transmission Line Fault by Using Wavelet
Rameshkumar. C. Mishra
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering Nagpur, India
P. M. Deoghare
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering Nagpur, India
Abstract Power Transmission line fault identification and classification requires fast and accurate analysis. The action of tripping mainly depends on the voltage and current waveforms obtained during the fault at the relay location. Wavelet analysis which is a mathematical tool for signal analysis is used to detect and classify the type of fault occurring on the transmission line. The coefficient of discrete approximation of the dyadic wavelet transform with different wavelets are used to be an index for transmission line fault detection and faulted phase selection and select which wavelet is suitable for this application. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for the analysis of current waveform during the fault. MATLAB/Simulation is used to generate fault signals. Simulation results reveal that the performance of the proposed fault detection indicator is promising and easy to implement for computer relaying application.
Keywords Transmission line, Fault detection, Faulted phase selection, Haar wavelet, Wavelet transform.

INTRODUCTION
In power transmission line protection, faulty phase identification, classification and location are very important issues which need to be addressed in reliable and accurate manner for the analysis [1][2]. The wavelet transform normally uses both the analysis and synthesis in pair. Synthesis is used for waveform reconstruction; the original signal is decomposed in to its constituent wavelet subbands or levels. Each of these levels represents that part of the original signal occurring at that particular time and in that particular frequency band. These individual frequency bands are logarithmically spaced rather than uniformly spaced as in Fourier analysis. The decomposed signals posses a powerful timefrequency localization property, which is one of the benefits provided by the wavelet transform, and hence resulting signal can analyzed in both time and frequency domains [3]. In this paper the approach base on the wavelet transform of the fault transients, is presented. Wavelet transform having some unique features that make it suitable for the particular application that it maps given function from time domain in to time scaling domain unlike the function used in Fourier analysis, the wavelet not only localized in frequency but also in time this allows to detect the time of occurrence of disturbance. The approach adopted here for detection and classification of all types of fault which occurs on transmission line. The line currents at the relay location are having transient of non periodic nature when there is fault
on the line and hence were utilized for the wavelet analysis.
Application areas of wavelet transform in power systems include power quality, power system transients, power system protection, condition monitoring, partial discharge and transformer. But the area that the wavelet transforms covers largely is power quality and power system protection [4]. Comparison of Fourier Transform method with Wavelet transform method for detection and classification and location of transmission line fault was done in [5]. The Discrete Wavelet Transform based technique that include wavelet decomposition of signal and considering normal operation of system as reference analysis is used. The severity of disturbance is depends on the type of fault and by performing wavelet decomposition, taking maximum value of approximation coefficient as base value and comparing with decomposed current the type of fault were clearly detected was proposed in [6]. A new technique based on traveling wave for fault location on line with branches is based on the detection of fault generated high frequency transient wave at one end of line was presented in [7]. The concept of Wavelet Entropy not only for transient signal feature analysis but also for fault detection and transmission line diagnosis is presented in [8]. The power quality related issues like voltage sag, swell, momentary interruption and oscillatory transient using Morlet wavelet were presented in [9][12]. Power system relaying related domain and application of wavelet to resonant grounded power distribution network was presented in [13].

SIGNAL ANALYSIS USING WAVELET TRANSFORM
Wavelet transform was introduced at the beginning of 1980s by attracting in the field of speech and image processing. However its application to power sector has been introduced in [5][13].It is linear transformation like Fourier transform, with one difference that it allows time localization of different frequency component of given signal.
Short time Fourier transforms achieve partially same thing but with a limitation of using a fixed width windowing function. In case of wavelet transform, the analyzing functions, which are called wavelets, will adjust their time width to their frequency in such a way that, higher frequency wavelet will be very narrow and lower frequency wavelet will be broader. This property of multi resolution is particularly useful for analyzing fault transients which contains localized high frequency component superposed on
power frequency signals. Thus wavelet transform is better suited for analysis of signal containing short lived high frequency disturbance superposed on lower frequency continuous waveforms by virtue of this zoom in capability.
Given function x(t), its continuous wavelet transform will be calculated as follows:
1 t b

POWER SYSTEM MODEL
In order to investigate the applicability of proposed algorithm, a 400 KV60Hz power system is considered for the purpose. The power system model is shown in Fig.2. The system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software. The sending end (SE) is modeled as an equivalent machine and the receiving end (RE) is modeled as an infinite bus. In
WT (a,b)
x(t) dt
(1)
normal condition, power is transferred from SE to RE
a
a
through a line having two section, each of 140km length.
Where, a and b are the scaling (dilation) and translation (time shift) constants, and is the wavelet function which may not
be real as assumed in above equation for simplicity. The Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is defined as
Lines are modeled with distributed parameters in the simulation.
1 k nam
DWT (m, k) = x[n]g o (2)
a
a
o
m n m o
o
o
Where x[n] is the mother wavelet and the scaling and translation parameter a and b are function of an integer parameter m, a= am and b= nam .
Discrete wavelet transform is very useful technique for analyzing the transient phenomenon related with the transmission line faults. Multiresolution analysis (MRA) is one of the tool of Discrete wavelet transform, which decomposes original signal typically nonstationary signal in to low frequency signal called Approximations and high frequency signal called Details, with different levels or scales of resolution, specially uses prototype function called mother wavelet . At each level the signal like approximation signal is obtained by convolving signal with low pass filter and detailed signal is obtained by convolving the signal by high pass filter and both signal are followed by dyadic decimation.
Fig. 1 Wavelet decomposition of Signal
Fig. 2 Simulated System.
The parameters of the system sed for simulation are given in table below.
Equivalent Generator G: 600MVA, 22KV, 60Hz, Inertia constant 4.4MW/MVA. Xd=1.81p.u,Xd=0.3p.u,Xd=0.23p.u,Tdo=8s,Tdo=0.03s, Xq=1.76p.u,Xq=0.25p.u,Tqo0.03s,Ra=0.003pu,Xp=0.15pu
Transformer: 600MVA, 22/400KV, 60Hz, /Y, X=0.163p.u, Xcore=0.33p.u, Rcore=0, Pcopper=0.00177p.u.
Transmission lines: Z1=0.12+j0.88 ohm/km.
Z0=0.309+j1.297ohm/km. C1=1.0876*10^8 F/km.
Figure above shows the basic simulated system with generator connected to infinite bus and line is divided in to two section having length of 140km. Initially while developing model that is with using generator, the voltage and current waveforms are obtained having swing in both voltage and current waveform. So in order to obtain smooth waveform generator load flow and machine initialization is done, which gives normal voltage and current signal. Fig 3 shows the voltage and current signal of phase A during the swing, waveforms shows the stable swing. This swing is obtained when the difference between sending end and receiving end angle is 45 degree that is when the power angle is 45 degree.
After the swing generator load flow and machine initialization is done so that we obtained normal voltage and current waveform as shown in Fig 4. The figure shows the voltage and current signal during normal condition that is system does not have any fault. Fig 5 and 6 shows the waveform during phase to ground fault and during three phase fault.
x 104
Voltage
5
0
5
0 0.5 1 1.5

DETECTION METHODOLOGY
Since the facility to allow the use of variable window length, the wavelet transform is useful in analyzing transients those
x 104
5
Current
0
5
10
Time
associated with the line faults or switching operations. Unlike Fourier transform, wavelet analysis has ability to analyze a localized area of signal and can reveal aspects of data like
break points, discontinuities, etc. Wavelet transform is thus
0 0.5 1 1.5
Time
Fig: 3 Voltage and current waveform during power swing.
x 105
5
Voltage
0
5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time
Current
1000
0
1000
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time
Fig: 4 Voltage and current waveform during normal condition.
x 105
Voltage
5
0
5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Compute norm of DWT coefficient Of current signal
Time
useful in detecting onset of fault and realizing non stationary signals comprising both low and high frequency components. Fault detection can be obtained from details of first decomposition level of the measured current signal using haar and db1 wavelet. This level contains high frequencies that are associated with the faults. A fault can be detected by observing the norm of DWT coefficient of these fundamental frequency components. If the norm of DWT coefficient for line current less than certain threshold, the lines are healthy. Once the norm of one or more current DWR coefficient exceeds the threshold value then disturbance is selected. Six level decomposition is performed for fault classification.
START
Load input data
4000
Current
2000
0
Identify the phase has largest value
2000
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time
x 105
Voltage
5
0
5
Fig: 5 Voltage and current waveform during ag Fault.
Norm> No
Threshold
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time
Current
5000
0
5000
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time
Fig: 6 Voltage and current waveform during abc Fault.
Yes
Phase is involved in fault
No fault
Fig: 7 Flowchart for fault identification.
To illustrate how fault can be detected and classified using wavelet transform a different types of fault created and obtained the norm value of each phase and compared with
threshold values clearly classify the fault. Table 1 below shows the normalized value calculated by using DWT for every phase current for normal and faulty condition clearly classifies the type of fault. All this normalized values are calculated by using Haar wavelet with different fault condition with simulation time of 0.1s and fault time of 0.01s. Normal value is threshold value and all other values are with different faulty condition.
Table: 1 Norm value of every phase current by using Haar wavelet.
CONDITION 
dA 
dB 
dC 
NORMAL 
26129 
25812 
26005 
AG Fault 
43847 
26321 
25496 
BG Fault 
25509 
42891 
26681 
CG Fault 
26447 
25258 
52290 
AB Fault 
41507 
33218 
26546 
BC Fault 
26499 
47438 
42717 
CA Fault 
44709 
26118 
49696 
ABG Fault 
44604 
39135 
26215 
BCG Fault 
25945 
46115 
51441 
CAG Fault 
44667 
25550 
54539 
ABC Fault 
45725 
40595 
53894 
ABCG Fault 
45732 
41894 
53384 
Table: 2 Norm value of every phase current by using db1 wavelet.
Table: 3 Norm value of every phase current by using Haar wavelet with fault time of 0.02s.
26129
CONDITION 
dA 
Db 
dC 
NORMAL 
25812 
26005 

AG Fault 
53855 
27149 
24645 
BG Fault 
25220 
46110 
27121 
CG Fault 
27222 
24464 
61753 
AB Fault 
47123 
35684 
26887 
BC Fault 
26708 
48549 
42271 
CA Fault 
50909 
26705 
60290 
ABG Fault 
54016 
41839 
25836 
BCG Fault 
26643 
47537 
60062 
CAG Fault 
53780 
25880 
64933 
ABC Fault 
54202 
43417 
60595 
ABCG Fault 
53838 
43219 
62958 
START
Load input data
Compute MRA coefficient Of current signal
CONDITION 
dA 
dB 
dC 
NORMAL 
26129 
25812 
26005 
AG Fault 
43847 
26321 
25496 
BG Fault 
25509 
42891 
26681 
CG Fault 
26447 
25258 
52290 
AB Fault 
41507 
33218 
26546 
BC Fault 
26499 
47438 
42717 
CA Fault 
44709 
26118 
49696 
ABG Fault 
44604 
39135 
26215 
BCG Fault 
25945 
46115 
51441 
CAG Fault 
44667 
25550 
54539 
ABC Fault 
45725 
40595 
53894 
ABCG Fault 
45732 
41894 
53384 
Yes
S=Sa+Sb+Sc S>5 and S<5
Determine Sa,Sb,Sc
No
Table 1 and 2 shows the calculated norm values during fault and normal condition with fault time of 0.01s.
Is (SaSb) II (SbSc) II (ScSa)<250
Yes
LL Fault
Is (SaSb) II (SbSc) II (ScSa)<100
No Yes No
LLL Fault
LG Fault
LLG Fault
END
Fig: 8 Algorithm for fault classification.
METHODOLOGY FOR FAULT CLASSIFICATION
Fig 8 above shows the algorithm for fault classification, in this wavelet decomposition of six level considered for obtaining the absolute values of all the three phases of current signal for classifying the fault. The sampling frequency is 12.5 KHz, twelve level decomposition of signal is considered and out of that six level decomposition of signal is considered for fault classification. Each level of signal contains frequency to that level like first level decomposition of signal contains frequency, from 3.125 KHz to 6.25 KHz and so on.
CONCLUSION
This paper presents a wavelet transform based approach for transmission line fault classification that is a simple and effective fault detecting approach based on wavelet transform. The abrupt change of current component of fault current for power system can be detected by using Haar and db1 wavelet. The fault detection indicator also can achieve the task of faulted phase selection. The simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible for transmission line protection to the fault such as LG, LL, LLG, LLL, and L LLG faults in different location.
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