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Analysis of Glass Powder as A Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete


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Analysis of Glass Powder as A Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Analysis of Glass Powder as A Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Hosanna. S1 Department of Civil Engineering Parisutham institute of technology

and science Thanjavur

Karthikeyan A R2 Department of Civil Engineering Parisutham institute of technology

and science Thanjavur

Bhuvaneswari. S3 Department of Civil Engineering Parisutham institute of technology

and science Thanjavur

Abstract Cement manufacturing industry is one of the carbon dioxide emitting sources besides deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. The global warming is caused by the emission of green house gases, such as CO2, to the atmosphere. Among the greenhouse gases,CO2 contributes about 65% of global warming. The global cement industry contributes about 7% of greenhouse gas emission to the earths atmosphere. In order to address environmental effectsassociated with cement manufacturing, there is a need to develop alternative binders to make concrete. Consequently extensive research is on going into the use of cement replacements, using many waste materials and industrial byproducts. Efforts have been made in the concrete industry to use waste glass as partial replacement of fine aggregates and cement. In this study, finely powdered waste glasses are used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete and compared it with conventional concrete. This work examines the possibility of using Glass powder as a partial replacement of cement for new concrete. Glass powder was partially replaced as 0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and tested for its compressive, Tensile and flexural strength up to 7 days and 28 days of age and were compared with those of conventional concrete;from the results obtained , it is found that glass powder can be used as cement replacement material.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    During the Roman Empire, concrete was made from quick lime, pozzolanic ash/ pozzolana, and an aggregate of furnace. It is widely used in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed as Concrete Revolution. It is free Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs both in terms of structural complexity and dimensions.

    The word concrete comes from the Latin word conretus, (meaning compact or condensed), the past participle of concresco, from com(together) and cresco (to grow).

    Concrete is the composition of cement, aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand,admixtures , and water. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together,

    eventually creating a stone-like material. Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural structures, foundations, motorways / roads, bridges / overpasses, parking structures, brick / block walls and footings for gates, fences and poles.

    Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. As of 2006, about cubic kilometers of concrete are made each yearmore than one cubic meter for every person on Earth. Concrete powers US $35billion industry, which employs more than two million worker in the United states alone. More than 55,000 miles (89,000km) of highways in the United States are paved with this material. Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete are the most widely used modern kinds of concrete functional extensions. Recently, the use of recycled materials as concrete ingredients in gaining popularity because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation. The most conspicuous of these ids of Glass powder, a byproduct of waste Glass powder. This has a significant impact by reducing the amount of quarrying and landfill space required, and as it acts as a cement replacements, reduces the amount of cement required to produce a solid concrete. Concrete additives have been used since Roman and Egyptian times, when it was discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set under water. Similarly, the Romans knew that adding horsehair made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened, adding blood made it more frost-resistant. In modern times, researches have experimented with the addition of other materials to create concrete with improved properties, such as higher strength or electrical conductivity. Combining cement with aggregate and sufficient water makes concrete.

    Water allows it to set and bind the materials together. Different mixtures are added to meet specific requirements. Concrete is normally reinforced with the use of rods or steel mesh before it is poured into moulds. Interestingly, the history of concrete finds of concrete evidence in Rome some 2000 years back. Concrete was essentially used in aqueducts and roadways construction in Rome. In 1886, the first rotary kiln was introduced in England that made constant production of cement. In 1891, George Bartholomew made the first concrete street in Ohio, USA. By 1920s, concrete found major usage in construction of roads and buildings. It was in 1936 that the first concrete dams Hoover and Grand cooley were built. There has been no looking back for concrete since its modern development. Known as the strongest building material, concrete has found major uses in dams, highways, buildings and many different kinds of building and

    construction. The secret of concrete has lost for 13 centuries until 1756, when the British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete in the early 1840s. This version of history has been challenged however, as the Cana du Mudi was constructed using concrete in 1670. Concrete additives have been used since Roman and Egyptian times, when it was discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set under water.

    In modern times, researchers have experimented with the addition of other materials to create concrete with improved properties, such as higher strength or electrical conductivity.

    1. GLASS POWDER

  2. MATERIALS

    Figure 1. Glass powder Production

    Waste glass available locally inPondicherry shops is been

    collected and made into glasspowder. Glass waste is very hard material. Before addingglass powder in the concrete it has to be powdered todesired size. In this studies glass powder ground in ball/pulverizer for a period of 30 to 6o minutes resulted inparticle sizes less than size 150 m and sieved in 75 m. Glass powder in concrete improves both the mechanical and durability characteristics of the concrete.

    The use of recycled glass as the partial re-placement of cement greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. Recent research findings have shown that concrete made with recycled glass powder have shown better long term strength and better thermal insulation due to its better thermal properties of the glass powder.Glass powder is used to increase strength anddurability of concrete, but generally requires the used for more resistant towards corrosion.

    Glass powder is not available in any dry and wet conditions, It has to be produced by collecting the waste glass material and crushed them all with high degree of heat the glass powder will be produced. Glass powder without the dosages of chemical admixtures into it. It emphasized the effect of glass powder on workability level Four levels of glass powder contents (as partial replacement of cement by weight) at 0% , 25%, 35%, and 50% (control mix).

    Approximately 100times smaller than the average cemnt particle.Because of its extreme fineness and high glass content. Glass powder is a highly effective pozzolanic material .

    Characteristics and application glass powder consists of fine vitreous particles with a surface area on the order of 215,280 ft2/lb (20,000 m2/kg) when measured by nitrogen absorption techniques, with particle approximately one hundredth the size of the average cement particles.

    1. GLASS POWDER PRODUCTION

    Glass powder it is not the original product its the By- product produced from the waste glass particles the entire process will be shown in the below map. The map will shows the following areas Waste glass particles collecting area , Hooper , Crusher , Cullet mill , Powder sifter , Powder conveyor , Mixing machine , Batching machine.*

    completing 12 cycles of stroke on each face of block. Each cycle of stroke was given using vertical wire brush and corresponding percentage of wearing was noted.

  3. METHODS

    1. Fineness Modulus Test

      To find the fineness modulus of fine aggregate and The Standard grain size analysis test determines the relative proportions of different grain sizes as they are distributed among certain size ranges.

      S.NO.

      PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      VALUES

      1.

      Specific gravity

      2.6

      2.

      Fineness passing 150mm

      99.5

      3.

      Fineness passing 90mm

      98

      S.NO.

      CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

      VALUES

      1.

      PH

      10.25

      2.

      Colour

      Grayish white

      S.NO.

      CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF GLASS POWDER

      % BY MASS

      01.

      Si02

      67.330

      02.

      Al203

      2.620

      03.

      Fe203

      1.420

      04.

      Ti02

      0.157

      05.

      CaO

      12.450

      06.

      Mgo

      2.378

      07.

      Na20

      12.050

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

      1. TEST RESULTS AND GRAPH

        Size of casted cube : 150mm x 150mm x 150mm

        Coarse aggregate : pass through 20mm and retain at 16mm

        Fine aggregate : pass through 2.36mm and retain at 1.86mm

        Water : potable

        Replacement of cement

        Ultimate load(KN)

        7days model 1.

        7days model 2.

        7 days model

        3.

        0%

        780

        780

        760

        25%

        800

        620

        650

        35%

        470

        400

        450

        50%

        280

        150

        230

        Table. 2. Ultimate load for 7 days cubes

        Table. 3. Ultimate load for 28 days cubes

        • The above graph shows the compressive strength for M20 grade of 7 days ans 28 days cube

        • This graph represents the 25% replacement of glass powder in concrete gives the maximum compressive strength

        • The other similar percentages of 35% and 50% shows the lesser value when compared to the compressive strength of 25%

        • The maximum compressive strength of 25% replacement value is 35.55 kN / mm2

    Replacement of cement

    Ultimate load(KN)

    28days model 1.

    28days model 2.

    28 days

    model 3.

    0%

    690

    920

    750

    25%

    740

    540

    600

    35%

    500

    490

    480

    50%

    350

    310

    340

    Size of casted cylinder : Dia-150mm , Depth 300mm. Coarse aggregate : pass through 20mm and retain at 16mm

    Fine aggregate : pass through 2.36mm and retain at 1.86mm

    Water : potable

    Table. 6. Ultimate load 7 days cylinders

    Replacement of cement

    Ultimate load(KN)

    7days model 1.

    7days model 2.

    7 days

    model 3.

    0%

    180

    180

    180

    25%

    220

    130

    150

    35%

    80

    100

    90

    50%

    40

    50

    45

    Table. 4. Compressive strength for 7 days cubes

    Replacement of cement

    Compressive strength for 7 days cube

    0%

    34.66

    25%

    35.55

    35%

    20.88

    50%

    12.44

    Table. 7. Ultimate load 28 days cylinders

    Replacement of cement

    Ultimate load(KN)

    28days model 1

    28days model 2

    28 days

    model 3

    0%

    200

    210

    200

    25%

    220

    160

    180

    35%

    120

    100

    110

    50%

    30

    50

    40

    Table. 5. Compressive strength for 28 days cubes

    Replacement of cement

    Compressive strength for 28 days cube

    0%

    30.66

    25%

    32.88

    35%

    22.22

    50%

    15.55

    Table. 8. Split tensile strength for 7 days cylinders

    7

    Normal 25% 35% 50%

    Replacement of cement

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Compressive

    Fig. 4.2 Graph for M20 cube

    Replacement of cement

    Split tensile strength for 7 days cube

    0%

    4.00

    25%

    4.44

    35%

    2.22

    50%

    1.11

    Replacement of cement

    Split tensile strength for 28 days cube

    0%

    4.66

    25%

    4.88

    35%

    2.66

    50%

    1.11

    Table. 9. Split tensile strength for 28 days cylinders

    Fig. 4.2 Graph for M20 cylinders

    • The above graph shows the Split tensile strength for M20 grade of 7 days and 28 days cylinders.

    1. This graph also represents the 25%Grade of Concrete Size of casted cubes: 150mm x150mm x 150mm

    Grade of concrete: M20.

    Table. 1. Details of Specimen

    50%

    Grade

    Curing days

    Normal

    25%

    35%

    M20

    7 days

    3

    3

    3

    3

    28days

    3

    3

    3

    3

    Total number of cubes for M20 grade concrete = 16 cubes

    Total number of cylinders for M20 grade concrete = 08 cylinders

    .

    Replacement of cement

    Ultimate load(KN)

    7days model 1.

    7days model 2.

    7 days

    model 3.

    0%

    180

    180

    180

    25%

    220

    130

    150

    35%

    80

    100

    90

    50%

    40

    50

    45

    6. Ultimate load 7 days cylinders

    Table. 9. Split tensile strength for 28 days cylinders

    Replacement of cement

    Split tensile strength for 28 days cube

    0%

    4.66

    25%

    4.88

    35%

    2.66

    50%

    1.11

    Fig. 4.2 Graph for M20 cylinders

    • The above graph shows the Split tensile strength for M20 grade of 7 days and 28 days cylinders

    • This graph also represents the 25% replacement of glass powder in concrete gives the maximum Split tensile strength

    • The other similar percentages of 35% and 50% shows the lesser value when compared to the Split tensile strength of 25%

    • The maximum Split tensile strength of 25% replacement value is 4.4kN/mm2

      Table. 7. Ultimate load 28 days cylinders

      Replacement of cement

      Ultimate load(KN)

      28days model 1

      28days model 2

      28 days

      model 3

      0%

      200

      210

      200

      25%

      220

      160

      180

      35%

      120

      100

      110

      50%

      30

      50

      40

      Table. 8. Split tensile strength for 7 days cylinders

  5. CONCLUSION

    • By using the glass powder in concrete will reduce the green house effect produced by the cement manufacturing industry

    • Glass powder concrete increases the compressive, tensile and flexural strength effectively, when compared with conventional concrete.

    • Cement replacement up to 25% with Glass powder leads to increase in compressive strength, Split tensile strength,M20 grade. Beyond 25% there is a decrease in compressive strength and Split tensile strength for 28 and 7days curing period.

    • It is observed that the compressive strength and Split tensile strength of M20 grade concrete is decreased by 35%, and 50% respectively.

    • There is a decrease in workability as the replacement level increases, and hence water consumption will be more for higher replacements.

    • The maximum replacement level of Glass powder is 25% for M20 grade of concrete.

REFERENCE

Replacement of cement

Split tensile strength for 7 days cube

0%

4.00

25%

4.44

35%

2.22

50%

1.11

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