Analysis and Design of Pre-Engineered Parking Plaza

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV7IS050061

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Analysis and Design of Pre-Engineered Parking Plaza

Nirbhay A. Gajbhiye

Student of Department of Civil Engineering GCOE Jalgaon India, 425001

Bhagyashree S. Marathe

Student of Department of Civil Engineering GCOE Jalgaon India, 425001

Abhijeet P. Dhalwar

Student of Department of Civil Engineering GCOE Jalgaon India, 425001

Pratik R.Ingle

Student of Department of Civil Engineering GCOE Jalgaon India, 425001

Vilas T. Patil

Assistant professor of applied mechanics GCOE Jalgaon India, 425001

Abstract The population of India is continuously increasing day by day and towns and cities have grown up around their public transport system. The parking scenario is woefully falling short of the current requirement in the country. The resultant scarcity of parking space has begun to spill over to other aspects of urban life in form of congestion, fuel loss, dispersed land use and low air quality.

Multi-level car parking has come with no. of reliefs since they come with no. of advantages such as optimal utilization of spaces, flexibility for realization of optimum parking solution. Providing Pre-engineered structure for such parking is relatively new concept in India.

This paper presents the analysis and design of pre- engineered multi-level car park for the mitigation of traffic challenges in public areas using STAAD.Pro & ETABS software. Design of pre-engineered multi-level car park was carried out by using static analysis and suitability of it was checked accordingly.

Keywords Parking plaza; pre-engineered building (PEB); STAAD.Pro; ETABS


    The vibrant nation India, home to over thousands of million people, is currently facing one of the biggest problems now days. The situation is such that on any given working day approximately 40 % of the roads in urban India are taken up for just parking the cars. It is also noteworthy that a personal vehicle is on the move hardly for 2 to 3 hours in a day, while for the remaining period it is parked at the residence or destination and sometimes on-route. Even commercial vehicles will be found to be parked for about 60% of time on an average. So, this problem of parking is rising day by day.

    There are some other ways to solve car parking issues, such as multi-level car parking. Multi-level car park is unique structure in which all elements of the structure are normally exposed to the public. Multi-level car parking is of two types:

    1. Conventional

    2. Automated

    Conventional car parking can be done anywhere on ground or under it. The open parking areas are more preferred as opposed to closed areas in case of parking above the ground as specified fire protection system and mechanical ventilation are not needed in this case. Automated multi-level car parking is more difficult to achieve in India considering that it is entirely technology driven and does not involve much human element. The more conventional option seems to be the better best. But conventional multi-level car parking is needed to be modified in structural means. Hence another option which came into existence is providing pre-engineered structure for car parking.


    Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings use a combination of built- up sections, hot rolled sections and cold formed elements which provide the basic steel frame work with a choice of single skin sheeting with added insulation or insulated sandwich panels for roofing and wall cladding. The concept is designed to provide a complete building envelope system which is air tight, energy efficient, optimum in weight and cost and, above all, designed to fit user requirement like a well fitted glove.

    These Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings can be fitted with different structural accessories including mezzanine floors, canopies, fascias, interior partitions, crane systems etc. The building is made water-tight by use of special mastic beads, filler strips and trims. This is a very versatile building system and can be finished internally to serve any required function and accessorized externally to achieve attractive and distinctive architectural styles. It is most suitable for any low- rise building and offers numerous benefits over conventional buildings.

    Pre-engineered buildings are generally low-rise buildings; however, the maximum eave heights can go up to 25 to 30 meters. Low rise buildings are ideal for offices, houses, showrooms, shop fronts etc. The application of pre- engineered concept to low rise buildings is very economical and speedy. Buildings can be constructed in less than half the normal time especially when complimented with other engineered sub-systems.

  3. PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDING AS PARKING PLAZA PEB as a Multi-level car parking have provided relief to

    all the problems which are likely to be faced by R.C.C. multi-level car parking, since they come with a no. of advantages like:

    1. Optimal utilization of space

    2. Lower maintenance and operational cost

    3. Lower construction cost (owing to the prefabrication)

    4. Withstands high wind speeds, dynamic loads and seismic loads

      Hence now days PEB multi-level car park is a new trend in a construction industry to design the structure around car parking and not the car parking car parking designed around the building.

      Fig. 1. Flat deck type parking plaza



        It is seen that, the daily traffic volume in the areas of Railway Station, Khandesh Central Mall and Phule Market in Jalgaon is heavy i.e. near about 100-150 vehicles/hour. And there are no appropriate parking facilities available near that areas. To eliminate this problem, pre-engineered parking plaza will be the best solution.

        Region Maharashtra Location Jalgaon

        Type of support Fixed support Type of Structure G+2

        Type of building parking plaza for car and motorcycle Type of parking arrangement 600

        Fig. 2. 3D model of main frame.

        Width 42 m Length 42 m

        Building height 12 m Floor height 4m Column spacing 14 m Wind speed 39 m/s

        Type of floor flat deck type Type of slab– RCC

        Area of opening 80%

        Vehicles i) motorcycle 300 On ground floor

        ii) Light van 108 Nos


        Pre-engineered structures are generally used for the longer span. In this parking plaza building primary beams are provided having span about 14m and over it secondary beams are placed. A RCC `slab was provide over these beams.

        For slab- Method of design-IS Span in x direction- 14m Span in y direction- 3.5m Depth of slab- 150mm

        For main frame-Main beam- 72 no. Main column 16 no.

        Secondary beam-81 no. Bracing-12no.

        Fig. 3. Skeleton of structure of main frame.


        1. Dead load:


          Weight of RCC slab 3.75 KN/m2 Floor finish 1 KN/m2

          Collateral load 0.383 KN/m2 Total 5.133 KN/m2

        2. Live load:

          Weight of the vehicle

          1. Weight of car 4.2 tons = 4.2×103 kg Weight of 108 car 108×4.2×103 kg x 9.81

            – 4449816 N

            Weight of car per floor 4449816/2 = 2224908 N Intensity of load per square meter 2224908/42×42


            –1.261 KN/ m2

          2. Minimum live load according to IS 875 part II 3 KN/ m2

            Total 4.261 KN/ m2

          3. Wind load:

          Wind load is analyzed by STAAD.Pro According to IS code 875 part III

          For 10 m height wind intensity 0.8 For 5 m height wind intensity 0.9


    1. Modelling: In STADD.Pro the co-ordinate system was used for establishing nodes of junction. And that nodes were connected by add beam command.

    2. Properties: Properties were assigned to the beam and column such as material sections.

    3. Supports: Fixed supports are provided to the base of the column. At which all degree of freedom is zero.

    4. Loading: loading was applied on the frame for the calculated load and combinations were generated by STAAD.Pro according to IS.

    5. Analysis: In this process software analyze the structure and calculate different parameter which is used for design.

    6. Output: After applying the load frame analysis was carried out from that following result were obtained:

      • Reaction in frame.

      • Moments in frame.

      • Shear in all member.

      • Bending moment in all member.

      • Deflection in members.

    7. Design: In design check code command was used which gives the check according to IS 800-2007 LSD for all the sections.

    Slab, base plate and footing for the main frame design manually by IS method.

    Fig. 4. Structural element of main frame in STAAD.Pro

  5. RAMP


    In this the ramp was provided adjacent to the main frame of structure having following data:

    Ramp for G+2 parking plaza Ramp type Flat deck

    No. of flight – 2 Width of ramp 4m Length 35m

    Height between landing 4 m Landing size 3.5x4m

    Pitch 1/9.1

    Wind speed 39 m/s Area of opening 80%

    For slab- Method of design-IS Span in x direction- 4m

    Span in y direction- 3.5m Depth of slab- 150mm

    Type of slab RCC Type of floor- flat deck

    Fig. 5. Plan of ramp

    Fig. 6. Plan and elevation of ramp


      1. Dead load:

        Weight of RCC slab 5.133KN/m2

      2. Live load:

        Total live load 3 KN/m2Xx1 = 3 KN/m2

      3. Wind load

        Wind load is analyzed by ETABS

      4. Dynamic load

      Vehicle load – 3 KN/m


    Ramp is having inclined members and its difficult to analyze it in STAAD.Pro software therefore it was analyzed in ETABS software by following steps:

    1. Modeling of ramp: In ETABS Software modeling of ramp was carried out as follows:

      • Plan grid system

      • Specification of material

      • Define section of material

      • Define shell slab for ramp

      • Apply section to models

      • Define static load and load combination

    2. Analysis process: In this process software analyze the structure and calculate different parameter which is used for design.

    Fig. 6. Structure of ramp in ETABS software



    Steel construction is well placed to satisfy all the requirement of good vehicle park design. Steel is:

    • Ideal for long span providing column-free parking space

    • Lightweight- reducing foundation requirements

    • Robust and fire resistant

    • Fast in construction

    • Easily maintained

    • Vandal resistant

    • Economic.


    From the outputs of & ETABS it has been seen that:

    • Every structural member satisfies all the checks such as deflection, area and section modulus check.

    • The ramp structure can sustain the moving loads.


    The goal of this project was to provide a better parking solution for the traffic problem in Jalgaon and to design the pre-engineered parking plaza for the same. Hence it can be concluded that:

    • A Pre-Engineered parking plaza is an application of PEB which can be used as a solution for parking problem in various urban cities. This parking plaza offers strength, durability, flexibility, adaptability and recyclability and helps for the sustainable development.

    • Sections designed by using STAAD.Pro software are efficient and are found economical than the conventional steel sections. After analyzing the ramp structure in ETABS it has been seen that the ramp structure is efficient to sustain the moving loads

    • To conclude, the pre-engineered parking plaza is best suited for providing end users a much more economical and better solution for larger column free parking space.


  1. Dr. Panchal D. R. Modelling and Parametric Study of Typical Multi Level Car Parking System

  2. Duggal S.K, Limit State Design of steel Structural Tata McGraw Hill education private limited, New Delhi, (2010).

  3. Dr. S.R. Karve & Dr. V.L. Shah – Illustrated design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

  4. IS: 800 – 2007: – General Construction in Steel – Code of Practice.

  5. IS: 875 (Part 1) – 1987: – Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures- Dead Loads.

  6. IS: 875 (Part 2) – 1987: – Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures- Live Loads.

  7. IS: 875 (Part 3) – 1987: – Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures- Wind Loads.

  8. S: 456 (Fourth Revision), Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Indian Standard code of practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000.

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