An Enhanced Technique to Detect Sinkhole Attack in Internet of Things

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An Enhanced Technique to Detect Sinkhole Attack in Internet of Things

R. Stephen

Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science St. Josephs College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. L. Arockiam

Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science St. Josephs College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled with more heterogeneous devices. These devices are communicate together with wireless sensor network. IoT provides a system for the monitoring and controlling of the physical devices. Hence, IoT devices are called as nodes. These nodes are capable of the collection, processing and analysis of data by IoT sensor devices in the network. IoT network is facing different routing attacks. Such as selective forwarding, sinkhole, Sybil, wormhole etc. This paper deals with the sinkhole attack in IoT network and uses watchdog technique to detect sinkhole attack in internet of things environment.

Keywords IoT, routing attacks, watchdog, Sinkhole attack

  1. INTRODUCTION

    This section describes the basic concepts of proposed work.

    1. Internet of Things

      Internet of Things (IoT) is the next evolution of internet. It is connecting with huge number of heterogeneous devices. IoT uses different terminologies for its deployment. IoT devices are sensor based and communicate together. Hence, the usage of IoT applications are rapidly growing day by day. But, the deployment of IoT applications is a challenge due to security problem [25]. Because, IoT devices are constrained due to limited power, storage and energy. Security is one of the hot topic in research area. Mostly, routing attacks are occurred in internet of things environment. In existing system, security solutions and approaches are not sufficient one. This paper used watchdog mechanism to detect the sinkhole attack in IoT environment.

    2. Sinkhole Attack

      Among other routing attacks, sinkhole attack is the most destructive routing attacks in IoT environment. It creates the network traffic and collapses the network communication. It used different routing metrics. The metrics are fake link quality, shortest path etc. Sinkhole attack creates the fake information and sends the route request to neighbor nodes. This attack compromised the nodes.

    3. Watchdog Mechanism

    This paper uses the watchdog strategy to detect sinkhole attack. Watchdog mechanism is a kind of behavior monitoring system which is the base of trust systems in wireless sensor network. It is one of the intrusion detection

    techniques which detects the misbehaving nodes in the network.

  2. RELATED WORKS

    In related works, several papers proposed different mechanisms for Internet of Things security. Most of the papers used the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to solve the routing attacks. There are different types of routing attacks. Such as selective forwarding attacks, Sybil attacks, wormhole attacks, sinkhole attacks etc. Comparatively, a sinkhole attack is one of the most destructive routing attacks in Internet of Things. This section explains the different authors mechanisms and declarations.

    Saoreen et al. [18] used Neuro-fuzzy algorithm with Sugeno fuzzy rules to handled Phy/Mac layer attack in network. This algorithm checked the network either genuine or attack. Shahid et al. [19] proposed SVELTE intrusion detection system to detect routing attacks. Linus et al. [1] proposed the Intrusion detection system with novel security mechanism. It measured the routing attacks in the RPL. Tariqahmad et al. [2] analyzed data security and routing layer security.

    Shaker et al. [4] described secure routing protocol called PASER against DoS attacks. It used ambient assisted living applications. Anass et al. [5] used the key management and IDS system to solve the 6LoWPAN layer attacks. The paper analyzed the security aspects in 6LoWPAN network.

    Bull peter et al. [6] proposed Open flow control and pox controller to solve TCP/ICMP flow based attacks. Particularly, the paper provided security for IoT devices using an SDN gateway. Christian et al. [7] proposed Intrusion detection system to identify sinkhole attacks on 6LoWPAN networks for IoT. Mohamed et al. [8] used the Intrusion detection system with signature based technique. The paper illustrated IDS against sinkhole attack in WSN with mobile sink.

    Anthea et al. [9] classified the routing attacks against network resources, topology and traffic. The paper used taxonomy architecture for RPL networks. Hamed et al. [10] used the web mining technique and fuzzy logic approach to detect Denial of Service attacks.Vin la et al.

    [11] expressed Intrusion detection system and algorithm to detect misbehavior node in 6LoWPAN. Pavan et al. [12] analyzed the various routing attacks on RPL and 6LoWPAN. Kashif et al. [13] proposed a new protocol called RAEED to detect sinkhole attacks and DoS attacks.

    This protocol had able to address the problem. Jorge et al.

    [14] summarized different mechanisms for communication security in 6LoWPAN and RPL. Surendar et al. [15] used IDS, INTI, IDRS and constrained based technique to detect sinkhole attack.

    Viki et al. [16] used anomaly based detection system to detect wormhole attack. This paper developed a tool for exposing security threads in IP-enabled WSN. Ibrahim et al. [24] presented a mechanism to detect sinkhole attack using hop count technique in WSN. Fang- jiao zhang et al. [19] proposed redundancy mechanism to detect sinkhole attack in WSN based on the multipath selection. This paper used dijkstra algorithm to calculate the shortest path. Vijay et al. [23] presented traffic analysis tool to identify attacks against RPL in 6LoWPAN.

  3. MOTIVATION

    As related works stated that Internet of Things is becoming an emerging technology widely. Internet of Things connected with huge number of devices. Hence, communication among IoT sensor nodes is an important aspects. But security is one of the big challenge in internet of things. Especially, data security plays an important role in network. But, IoT is facing different types of routing attacks due to constrained devices. However, IoT needs an efficient security solution for communication aspects.

  4. OBJECTIVE

    The objective of this paper is to detect sinkhole attacks in wireless sensor networks for internet of things. This paper is used watchdog mechanism to analyze the behavior of the nodes. This mechanism is based on Trust and reputation strategies. It uses link quality as a parameter.

  5. PROBLEM STATEMENT

    Internet of Things is connecting with heterogeneous devices and communicate with together. Hence, IoT adopts machine to machine communication. These devices are deployed in an open place. But, IoT devices are constrained due to limited power, storage and energy. The intruder launch the different routing attacks due to constrained devices. In existing system, the proposed methods and approaches were not fulfilled the security solution.

    IoT sensor nodes are affecting with different routing attacks. Routing attacks are sinkhole, selective forwarding, Sybil, Denial of Service, wormhole etc. Among other routing attacks, sinkhole attacks is one of the dangerous one. It creates the fake information and send it to other compromised nodes. In fig 1. Shows that the activity of sinkhole attack.

    Fig 1. Sinkhole Attack (node B)

    In figure 1. S is the source node, D is the destination node and A, B, C, E, F and G are relay nodes. Here, node B is the sinkhole attacker node. It receives data ackets from nodes S, A, B and C and not send the data packets to the destination. Sometimes, it acts like selective forwarding attack that is attacker node drops the data packets and send the remaining data packets.

  6. PROPOSED METHOD

The proposed method is used to identify the sinkhole attack in internet of things environment. This paper used watchdog mechanism to detect the sinkhole attack. Watchdog is one of the intrusion detection technique in wireless sensor network. It is a monitoring technique which detects the misbehaving nodes in the network. In this work, watchdog method creates a table to store the behavior of the nodes. Each node maintains the temporary data of neighbor nodes.

Scenario 1:

In fig 2. Shows that the successful data transmission between source to destination.

Fig 2. Successful data transmission between S2 to D

As shown in fig 2. S1, S2, S3 are source nodes, D is the destination node and nodes A, B, C, E, F, and G are relay nodes and communicate within range. Source node S2 sends the data packets to the destination node D. Here, node A and node F are intermediate nodes which send all the data packets to the destination node. The successful data transmission is denoted as:

S2AFD

In table 1. Shows that the watchdog method table which is monitoring the behavior of nodes. This method used link quality as a parameter. Finally, it shows the status of the link.

Table 1. Watchdog strategy for one link

Node_Id

No.of packets

send

No. of packets

received

Link status

S2

100

100

Success

Scenario 2:

In fig 3. Shows that two failure links. These two links send the data packets to the destination, but destination node D not received all the data packets. Here, sinkhole attack node A drops the data packets.

neighbor nodes which detects the malicious node in network.

Fig 3. Data packets dropped by sinkhole node A

As shown in fig 3. S1, S2, S3 are source nodes. Source node S2 sends the data packets to the destination node D and it received all the data packets successfully. Similarly, source node S1 and S3 are sending the data packets to the destination node D but it is not received all the data packets. In this case, sinkhole node A dropped the packets. Hence, node A received the data packets from three source nodes S1, S2 and S3. Among three source nodes, node S2 is only successfully send the data packets. The data flow of above scenario is denoted as:

Link 1: S1AFDFailure

Link 2: S2AFDSuccess

Link 3: S3AFDFailure

Table 2. Describes the watchdog monitoring table. This table concludes the number of successful link.

Table 2. Watchdog monitoring for three links

Node_Id

No.of packets

send

No. of packets

received

Link status

S1

50

0

Failure

S2

100

100

Success

S3

40

0

Failure

Scenario 3:

This scenario describes the three successful link ratio. For example fig 4. Shows that source nodes S1, S2 and S3 are successfully send the data packets to the destination. In this case, watchdog mechanism is analyzing the behavior of the nodes and send the response to the neighbor nodes.

Fig 4. Successful link quality

Now, source nodes are received the response from other neighboring nodes by using watchdog mechanism. These source nodes are analyzing the response and choose the best link for sending data packets. Watchdog mechanism is deployed in each nodes. It is monitoring the behavior of

IV. CONCLUSION

Many researchers proposed different techniques to detect sinkhole attack with various routing parameters and metrics. This paper used successful link ratio as a parameter. The proposed technique used the watchdog mechanism to handle the behavior of a node. This mechanism analyzes the number of links data packets are successfully send or not. This paper concentrates only on sinkhole attack. In future, the proposed mechanism will be applied to different routing attacks with various parameters and implementation.

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