AI Acceptability in Indian Healthcare: Exploring Disease Detection and Diagnosis

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV13IS050166

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AI Acceptability in Indian Healthcare: Exploring Disease Detection and Diagnosis

Abhijit Majumder Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gargi Memorial Institute of Technology,

Kolkata, India

Animesh Mahato Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gargi Memorial Institute of Technology,

Kolkata, India

Sukanta Kundu

Department of Computer Science and Engineering,

Gargi Memorial Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India

Asmita Sarkar

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Gargi Memorial Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India

Hiranmoy Samanta

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Gargi Memorial Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India


In the healthcare sector, traditional practices have long relied on the interaction between healthcare professionals and patients, often operating with limited access to comprehensive data. This inherent limitation impedes the efficient utilization of available data and contributes to prolonged and arduous healthcare processes, resulting in suboptimal patient care. Furthermore, the fragmentation of medical records across multiple healthcare providers complicates patient management and decision-making. In response to these challenges, the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in healthcare has gained traction. This paper presents an overview of AI algorithms employed in disease detection and diagnosis across various medical domains, accompanied by a comprehensive review of their applications. By examining these advancements, readers and researchers gain insights into the pivotal role of AI in enhancing disease detection and medical diagnosis. Additionally, this paper underscores the importance of selecting appropriate research methodologies to foster further advancements in this evolving field.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Healthcare analytics, Medical imaging, Clinical decision support, Predictive modeling, Machine Learning, AI


As the population of countries continues to grow and age, there is increasing strain on healthcare systems. This strain is exacerbated by the clinical attention required by the elderly and the expanding size of the aging population, which many countries are currently facing. Disease detection and diagnosis are critical issues in healthcare. Precise diagnosis based on medical evaluations and experiments is essential for effective patient care.

However, many medical centers and hospitals generate vast amounts of patient health data, including medical records, evaluations, and medication information. Organizing this diverse data effectively presents a complex challenge, as mismanagement can impact disease detection and diagnosis.

An area of energetic research gaining significance in healthcare is computer-aided detection and diagnosis. Before the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare, the potential for medical errors was considerably high. However, with the integration of AI into patient care, the use of computer-aided decision- making systems has become increasingly beneficial for disease detection and diagnosis. Recent studies and advancements in AI technology have demonstrated the potential to enhance the accuracy of disease diagnosis, enabling computer systems to think knowledgeably and insightfully like humans.

AI has emerged as a powerful technology in addressing numerous challenges in the healthcare system, including patient monitoring, disease detection, diagnosis, and health data management. One of the most pressing needs for AI in healthcare is in disease diagnosis and detection. AI enables healthcare professionals to diagnose various diseases earlier and more accurately, thereby facilitating timely intervention and treatment. AI techniques, such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), utilize sophisticated algorithms to achieve rapid and accurate disease detection and diagnosis.

ML algorithms, programmed to learn patterns from datasets, utilize statistical assumptions and analytical rules to develop models based on dataset features. Supervised learning (SL) is commonly used to train ML algorithms on

patient datasets in healthcare applications. AI optimization of predictive capabilities and efficiency is achieved through structured or unstructured datasets. Researchers have proposed various ML and DL algorithms for implementing healthcare identification and diagnostic systems, including AI-based oncology, ophthalmology, radiology, neurology, cardiology, and COVID-19 identification and treatment.

This chapter aims to provide an overview of disease identification and diagnosis in healthcare, utilizing a comprehensive taxonomy to categorize diseases based on AI techniques. It identifies existing studies and offers insights into new perspectives on disease detection and diagnosis schemes. Additionally, future perspectives for leveraging AI in disease detection and diagnosis in healthcare are discussed.

Overview of Disease Detection and Diagnosis Techniques: This section provides an insight into existing methods for disease identification and diagnosis utilizing AI algorithms. Researchers have developed algorithms based on three main learning techniques: supervised learning (SL) models, unsupervised learning (USL) models, and reinforcement learning (RL) models.

Supervised Learning (SL) involves the task of deducing a method that maps input to output based on instances of pairs of inputs and outputs. It relies on labeled datasets to train models and make predictions. SL models are commonly used in healthcare for tasks such as classification and regression, where the goal is to predict a discrete label or continuous value based on input features. Unsupervised Learning (USL) focuses on learning from unlabeled data to identify common patterns or features in the dataset. Unlike SL, USL does not rely on labeled data for training. Instead, it aims to uncover hidden structures or relationships within the data. USL models are useful for tasks such as clustering, anomaly detection, and dimensionality reduction in healthcare data analysis.

Reinforcement Learning (RL) involves learning to make sequential decisions by interacting with an environment to maximize cumulative rewards or minimize penalties. RL models learn from feedback received from the environment based on the actions taken. In healthcare, RL can be applied to tasks such as treatment optimization, personalized medicine, and adaptive clinical decision- making.

The proposed taxonomy of disease detection and diagnosis techniques in healthcare categorizes them based on the underlying AI algorithms and learning techniques. Each category represents a distinct approach to disease detection and diagnosis, with varying strengths and applications in healthcare settings.

In addition to SL, USL, and RL models, researchers have explored various hybrid and ensemble methods combining multiple learning techniques to enhance disease detection

and diagnosis accuracy. These approaches leverage the complementary strengths of different algorithms to improve overall performance and robustness in healthcare applications.

Fig.1. AI in Healthcare

Supervised Learning Models:

Supervised learning (SL) is widely utilized in healthcare for labeled datasets. It primarily focuses on classification and regression problems. Algorithms such as na¨ve Bayes (NB), support vector machines (SVM), neural networks (NN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision trees (DT), Bayesian elief networks (BBN), logistic regression, and Bayesian networks fall under this category. Studies have shown promising results in disease identification and diagnosis using SL models.

Fig.2.supervised Learning Model in Healthcare

Deep Learning Models:

Deep learning (DL) methods, including convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), automatically extract relevant features from large volumes of data, enhancing disease detection and diagnosis accuracy. DL has revolutionized oncology- focused image analysis and disease diagnosis, with applications ranging from Alzheimer's disease progression prediction to chest disease diagnosis.

Fig.3 Deep Learning models

Neural Networks Models:

Neural networks (NNs) are powerful computational tools for processing complex clinical data. Deep NNs, which mimic the parallel processing manner of the human brain, have shown significant advancements in disease diagnosis. Studies utilizing NN-based models, such as extreme learning machines (ELM) and multilayer perceptron NN (MLP), have demonstrated high accuracy rates in disease detection tasks.

Fig.4. Artificial Neural Network

Regression Models:

Regression methods play a crucial role in modeling underlying relationships among predictor variables and patient outcomes in healthcare data. Support vector regression, linear regression (LR), regression trees, autoregressive (AR), and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) are commonly employed for disease detection and diagnosis. These models have been utilized in predicting chronic kidney disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis rates.

Fig.5 Regression Based Health Cost Insurance Prediction

Traditional Classification Models:

Traditional classification models, including support vector machines (SVM), decision trees (DT), logistic regression, and K-nearest neighbor (KNN), are commonly used for disease detection and diagnosis tasks. Hybridization techniques and ensemble classifiers have been proposed to improve prediction accuracy. Studies have shown promising results in detecting heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and other medical conditions using these models.

Probabilistic Models:

Probabilistic methods, such as naive Bayes (NB) algorithms and Bayesian belief networks (BBN), offer valuable insights into disease detection and diagnosis issues in healthcare. These methods utilize random variables to construct ML models represented by probabilistic relations. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of probabilistic models in detecting pressure ulcers, predicting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms, and quantifying diagnostic uncertainty in Alzheimer's disease severity.

Fig6 Pre-Treatment observation using probabilistic Model

Unsupervised Learning Models:

Unsupervised learning (USL) involves training data that is not labeled or categorized in the dataset, aiming to uncover hidden patterns within the data. USL methods, such as K- means clustering (KMC), mutual nearest neighbor, principal component analysis (PCA), one-class classification (OCC), and maximum likelihood learning, are utilized to classify systems by identifying useful clusters in the input dataset.

Clustering Models:

Clustering models, a common USL technique, aid healthcare staff in patient scheduling and treatment planning by grouping similar characteristic data into clusters. The K-means clustering method is widely used, especially for spherical clusters. For instance, clustering techniques have been applied to identify patient groups with interstitial lung disease, enhancing therapeutic intervention effectiveness. Fuzzy C-mean clustering and mutual-KNN methods have also been utilized for disease detection and diagnosis.

Fig7 Phenotype Clustering in healthcare

One-Class Classification Models:

One-class classification (OCC) techniques aim to build classification models when negative instances are scarce or unclear. These models, including one-class neural network, one-class support vector machine (OCSVM), and one-class random forest, are beneficial for disease

diagnosis when negative instances are difficult to obtain. For example, an OCSVM-based classifier has been proposed for epilepsy diagnosis, achieving superior generalization performance.

Dimensionality Reduction Models:

Dimensionality reduction methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), principal component analysis (PCA), multiple discriminant analysis (MDA), and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), are utilized for disease detection and diagnosis. PCA, originally introduced for data dimensionality reduction, is also employed as a classifier, particularly for two-class classification problems. LDA and MDA have been used for automated Parkinsons disease detection and clinical pain description classification, respectively. QDA serves as an automatic seizure detection method capable of analyzing EEG data with high accuracy.

Reinforcement Learning Models:

Reinforcement learning (RL) models, unlike supervised and unsupervised learning, do not rely on labeled datasets. Instead, they learn from experimentation and interaction with the environment, continuously improving their performance based on feedback. In recent years, RL models have found successful applications in various healthcare services, including dynamic treatment of critical care, automated disease diagnosis, and health resource allocation.

Fig.8 Reinforcement Learning Models:

Several RL models have been employed for disease diagnosis tasks, including Q-learning (QL), deep Q- network (DQN), temporal difference, and deep adversarial networks (DAN). QL has been utilized for automatic kidney region extraction, leveraging its ability to learn optimal actions based on rewards obtained from the environment. Similarly, DAN has been employed to predict brain graph changes over time, resulting in significantly improved prediction accuracy compared to baseline methods. Additionally, RL frameworks with multilayer perceptron deep Q networks (MLP-DQN) have been developed for automated diagnosis dialog systems, incorporating knowledge-driven graph branches and relational refinement branches for enhanced diagnostic accuracy.

Summary of Some Applications for Disease Diagnosis in Healthcare:

The rapid advancement of AI technology has led to the development of techniques that aid in the accurate and early diagnosis of various chronic and dangerous diseases. ML models, particularly dynamic computer-guided health data analysis and interpretation techniques, play a crucial role in this domain. Applications of AI in disease diagnosis encompass various areas, including cancer disease diagnosis, cardiovascular disease diagnosis, medical imaging analysis, gene expression analysis, and COVID- 19 detection and monitoring.

In cancer disease diagnosis, AI algorithms can analyze medical imaging data to identify cancerous cells with higher accuracy than traditional methods, leading to early detection and improved patient outcomes. Similarly, AI- enabled cardiovascular disease diagnosis involves analyzing patient data to predict the risk of heart attacks and thrombus formation, allowing for timely interventions to prevent cardiovascular events.

Medical imaging analysis using AI techniques enables quick and accurate interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECG), identifying abnormalities and aiding in prompt decision-making by healthcare providers. Furthermore, AI plays a vital role in gene expression analysis, where it helps detect abnormalities in gene expression patterns associated with various diseases, facilitating early diagnosis and personalized treatment strategies.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, AI has been instrumental in detectin and monitoring the spread of the virus through data analysis of symptoms, testing results, and contact tracing. AI-powered diagnostic tools have been developed to assist healthcare providers in identifying COVID-19 cases quickly and accurately, contributing to effective management and containment efforts.

Open Research Problems:

While AI models hold promise for disease detection and diagnosis in healthcare, several research challenges persist. These include limited availability of medical data, unstructured nature of health data, selection of suitable AI models for specific datasets, data quality and quantity issues, resource-intensive requirements of AI models, and challenges related to integrating diverse patient data for comprehensive modeling.

Addressing these challenges requires interdisciplinary collaboration among healthcare professionals, data scientists, and AI researchers to develop robust AI models that can effectively leverage available healthcare data while ensuring privacy, security, and ethical considerations are upheld.


The chapter addresses the challenges and opportunities in healthcare for disease detection and diagnosis. It provides an overview of various AI techniques, including supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning models, and their applications in healthcare. The chapter concludes with a discussion on open research problems in utilizing AI for robust disease diagnosis solutions, highlighting the need for further exploration in this field to develop innovative and effective AI-driven healthcare solutions.


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