Accumulation of Toxic Metals in Soils/Dust Along Motorways From Champa To Katghora of Chhattisgarh State

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Accumulation of Toxic Metals in Soils/Dust Along Motorways From Champa To Katghora of Chhattisgarh State

Dr. Nand Kumar Tripathi,

Deptt. of Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Korba

Prof. Pankaj Swarnkar, Deptt. of Mech. Engg., Institute of Technology, Korba

Abstract:- Environmental pollution of Toxic Metals / heavy metals from road vehicle has attained much attention now a day. The vehicular pollution between champa to korba-katghora is increasing day by day and it affects agriculture as well as living beings. This works leads to study of different concentrations of the Toxic Metals / heavy metals like – Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co and As. Toxic Metals / heavy metals accumulation in soils along motorways by mainly due to transportation of coal ash, fly-ash and coal through heavy trucks and other transportation vehicles. – Near the Roadways soil sample from ten locations (champa, saragbundiya, madawarani, urga, korba, darri, gopalpur, chhuri, and katghora) were investigated during different seasons. Concentration of Toxic Metals / Heavy metals were determined by Flame atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS). Present work indicates toxic effect of toxic/heavy metals

Keywords: Toxic metals, environmental pollution, fly-ash, coal dust.

INTRODUCTION

Korba district is situated in the northern half of the Chhattisgarh state and sourrounded by the districts Korea, Surguja, bilaspur, Janjgir etc. The headquarter of Korba districts situated about 200 KM. from the capital city Raipur. The Districts total area is 7,14,544 hectare out of which 2,83,497 hectares is forest land. Champa Korba-Katghora road is the most important road which connects raigarh, shivrinarayan, ambikapur, pendra etc. Korba city is one of the most important industrial area in Chhattisgarh, therefore population density of the korba district has getting increased ( Korba District population in 2021 is 1,334,489 (estimates as per aadhar uidai.gov.in Dec 2020 data). As per 2011 census of India, Korba is also known as Power Hub, The large, moderate and small scaled industrial facilities are intensified along the roadway.

List of factories in Korba

  1. ACB (india) ltd. Chakabura coal washery

  2. ACB (india) ltd. Binjhri coal washery

  3. ACB (india) ltd dipka coal washery

  4. Hasdeo thermal power station, cspgcl korba west

  5. Smelter plant bharat aluminium company limited

  6. MW chakabura thermal power plant.

  7. 270 MW captive power plant bharat aluminium company limited

  8. NTPC limited, korba super thermal power station

  9. Vandana Power Project Chhuri

  10. DSPM Thermal Power Plant Korba

  11. Lanco Thermal Power Plant Patarhi

  12. Madawa Thermal Power Plant Champa.

  13. Open and underground coal mines (Kusmunda, Gevera, Dhelwadih, Bankimogra, Jawali, Rajgamar, Manikpur etc.)

    Due to increase in population, Industrialization, and road traffic density, the amount of emission was also increased and accumulation of Toxic/Heavy metals along road gradually increases.

    Toxic/Heavy metals such as Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co and As. Are main reasons for this pollution. Block and Dams(1) have reported the presence of mercury in coal dust, fly-ash up-to a level of 0.6 ppm. The concentration level of the toxic/heavy metals in dust, fly-ash have been described by earlier works as follows (3)

    TABLE 1

    Elements Concentration (in ppm)

    Hg

    0.7

    Cr

    100

    Cu

    93.5

    Cd

    3.0

    Ni

    83.5

    Pb

    46.5

    Zn

    115

    Co

    31.5

    As

    2.1

    Toxic/heavy metals like Cd and Pb concentration cause decrease in glucose-6-phosphate activity, this results in increased oxidative stress and increased lipid per oxidation which causes toxicity in the liver and kidney. Therefore toxic / heavy metals were selected as the topic of this research.

    The maximum lead concentration in the soil along roadways is observed in trucks stoppage, petrol/diesel pumps, weighing rooms, speed breakers and rooms, speed breakers and trucks repairing shops. Cu, Cr and Zn elements in soil along the road are the main material of various alloys, pipes cables and tire. Nickel in Gasoline and Cd & Zn in tires and motor oils were found in high concentration earlier (4,5). Study of Pollution along roadways is necessary; the aim of this study is to investigate the environmental pollution due to toxic/heavy metals accumulation in the soil layer along the Champa-Korba-Katghora road (Industrial belt).

    EXPERIMENTAL

    Sample location

    1. Champa railway- champa city-jarway junction (S1)

    2. Kothari railway-korba-champa junction (S2) 3 Urga weighing room (S3)

4 saragbundiya petrol pump (S4)

  1. Korba trucks repairing shops (Transport Nagar) (S5)

  2. Speed brakers sitamani outer (S6) 7 Darri-gopalpur petrol pumps (S7) 8 chhuri agricultural area (S8)

9 Katghora-Bilaspur-Ambikapur junction (S9) 10 Madwarani speed braker (S10)

Sample preparation and detection

The sample of soil from different location were collected at a depth of 0 to 0.7 cm reduced to a suitable size (Less than 2 mm) using the method of repeated quartering and dried at 1000 C and will be wet digested with HNO3-HCLO4 mixture, then refluxed with concentrated HNO3 to solubilize the metals, and stored in polythene bags. Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co and As. were carried out with flame absorption spectrophotometer. Other elements are estimated by usual methods.

BULK DENSITY

Weigh exactly 20 gms of powdered soil and fill in a 100 ml measuring cylinder by tapping. Note the reading (volume) of the cylinder which is occupied by the soil.

Bulk Density =

Weight of soil Volume of soil

TABLE 2

Sample location

Colour

Taxture

Water holding capacity

Bulk density gm/cc

Conductivity mho/cm

S1

Blackish

Loamy

70

1.33

167

S2

Brownish

silty

65

1.78

180

S3

Brownish

Silty-loamy

72

2.01

160

S4

Blackish

Loamy

68

1.50

187

S5

Blackish

Loamy

60

1.91

167

S6

Brownish

Loamy

68

1.72

156

S7

Brownish

Silty-loamy

68

1.53

160

S8

Blackish

Silty-loamy

72

1.71

175

S9

Brownish

Loamy

62

1.40

175

S10

Blackish

Silty-loamy

66

1.2

167

TABLE 3

Abundance of elements in the earth crust4 and their acceptable limits5

Elements Concentration in the earth Acceptable limits (mg/kg) by NSPCR

crust(mg/kg)

Hg,

0.1

1

Cr,

100

100

Cu,

50

50

Cd,

0.15

1

Ni,

75

30

Pb,

12.5

50

Zn,

70

150

Co

20

20

As.

1.8

2.0

TABLE 4

Results of sample collected along the CHAMPA-KORBA-KATGHORA Road

Location

Hg

Cr

Cu,

Cd

Ni

Pb

Zn

Co

As

S1.Champa railway- champa city- jarway

junction

0.80

480

70.20

0.50

80

72

77.9

43

15.6

S2. Kothari railway- korba-champa junction

.78

675

72.10

0.42

88

78

56.9

66

14.9

S3 Urga weighing room

.67

532

84.00

1.38

93

86

104.4

58

7.8

S4 saragbundiya petrol pump

0.43

456

50.00

01.35

94

58

203.56

98

13.3

S5. Korba trucks repairing shops (Transport Nagar)

0.33

899

48.20

0.23

80

78

178.8

68

12.89

S6. Speed brakers sitamani outer

0.64

1003

96.60

1.31

98

86

187.54

63

4.9

S7. Darri-gopalpur petrol pumps

0.95

872

42.10

1.35

89

77

199.67

22

16.98

S8. chhuri agricultural area

0.83

522

69.45

0.12

69

64

187.8

32

9.9

S9. Katghora-Bilaspur- Ambikapur junction

1.20

352

24.50

1.60

74

54

132.6

54

11.3

S10. Madwarani speed braker

1.0

476

59.76

1.41

63

78

159.99

33

15.6

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The heavy/toxic metal concentration range and average for soil sample collected from S1,S2,S3,S4,S5.S6,S7,S8,S9, and S10 Roadways for Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co and As. elements are as above. Toxic /heavy metals concentration exceed the permissible limits of these elements in the earth crust. Few elements such as Pb, Cd, Hg, As are toxic in nature.

Concentrations determined along the route are closely associated with the sample location such as residential area and speed breakers on the road. Heavy/toxic metals are those having density higher than the water/soil6. They are present in trace amount but they are toxic even at very low concentration.

Soil dispersion along motorways gradually increases due to transportation of coal, fly-ash which causes environmental problem. This metal reduces productivity of crops and change many physic-chemical reactions in human body.

According to Toxic/heavy metals accumulation along the champa-korba-katghora route agricultural activity should be prohibited. For public, children this route is not safe. Residential site should be rearranged. In order to minimize the toxic/heavy metals accumulation in the region, way of transportation of coal Fly-ash should be changed by air, rail, or sea.

REFERENCES

  1. Block C and Dams R. (1975) Inorganic composition of Banlgian coal and coal ashes.

  2. Kumar surendra (1984)Knowing pollution problem atmospheric problems from coal fired power plants.

  3. Klein D.H. Andreu, A.W. Canter, J.A.Canter(1975) Path way of thirty seven trace elements trough coal fired power plants.

  4. M.S. Oncel , V.Zedef and S.Mert , J.Fresenius Bull 13, 1525 (2004)

  5. K.Krauskopf, Introduction to geochemistry, McGrew-hill book company press 43 (1979)

  6. T.K.K.Y. Toprak25831 Sayili Reshmi Gazetede Ankara 2005

  7. Banerjee B, and Krishna KUmari (1988) Environment and Ecology

  8. Bertine K.K. and Golder E.D.(1971) Importgant source of particulate aie pollution Science.

  9. P.W. Abrahams Soils: their implications to human health Sci. Total Environ., 291 (2002), pp. 1-32

  10. J. Watt I. Thornton and IC Howells(1993)

  11. Hassan M.Z. and Pandey S.P.(1978) complexation extraction methods of lead and cadmium (Env. And Health)

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