- Open Access
- Authors : Vinit A. Sinha , Dr. Vilas M. Thakare
- Paper ID : IJERTV11IS080051
- Volume & Issue : Volume 11, Issue 08 (August 2022)
- Published (First Online): 15-08-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
A Study of Bypassing Security Control Methods in Kali Linux Environment
Prof. Vinit A. Sinha , Prof. Dr. Vilas M. Thakare
PRMITR Badnera, Amravati, Maharashtra
Abstract:- In the very recent years, antivirus and similar kind advance security software has high peak value due to accurate detection of crucial malwares and occurrence of different security incidents. Usually whenever software testers and security specialist get root or network access at internal of system, they assume they done all type of security testing an possess all kind of knowledge, but they forget or neglect important thing during penetration test process i.e., bypassing security controls.
In this paper, we perform analysis of this bypass security methods and get out effective one. So that it cannot be neglected any more. We analysis four effective method as Bypassing network access control, Bypassing security software (antivirus) based on different framework, Bypassing windows OS-based security controls and Bypassing application-level control method. Throughput this paper we implement these different methods including their subdomain on Kali Linux platform as it supports different security tools and provide strong platform for advance penetration tester. Kali Linux provide security framework for hardening network security on prior basis for security vendors.
Keywords Kali Linux, Penetration Testing, Antivirus, UAC, NAC, SSH
This research paper focused on neglected issue by pen-tester or attacker, i.e., Bypassing security control methods, current scenario of penetration testing is shown as in fig. 1.
Fig.1 Current scenario of Penetration testing
We perform analysis on different Bypass methods on basis of network access control, application-level controls and operating system security control. During analysis we perform study on pre-admission NAC (Network Access Control) and post- admission NAC for maintaining all security control on basis of requirement, which include addition of new device (network basis). For this operation we used Kali linux platform, having shell access for newly added device. Next task is to implement Bypassing security software (Antivirus) method, this includes use of Veil framework Antivirus evasion framework, use of shelter and effective method of going fileless for antivirus evasion. We then analyze Bypassing application-level method, which include tunneling client-side firewall by implementing SSH, Bypassing URL filtering technique for inbound and outbound rules. At last, we analyze Windows OS based Bypass control method. This includes UAC technique, fileless technique method using fodhelper to bypass user access control and disk cleanup technique in windows 10.
Research paper divides into six sections as section 2 describe about literature survey perform by various researchers, which include their distinct implementation of security technique. Section 3 briefs various methods use to bypass security controls. Section 4 explains implementation techniques that we use regarding bypass control methods. Section 5 describe result and
evaluation of different methods use in research with analysis report. Section 6 describe conclusion and future work related to research work for security measure.
For analyzation of bypassing security control methods, we performed various literature surveys as, Junior et. al  describe application of distributed firewall for managing firewall and their interactive rules. Ganji et. al  explains new way to enhanced linux security in terms of vulnerability module, Log analysis module and security module. Khoumsi et. al  describes automata-based method for analyzing firewall security policies. Their experiment includes design procedure for policy implication, detection of incompleteness in policy and detection of conflicts in the same policies. Mihalos et. al  examines network security threats and mechanism, they implement Netfilter / Iptables as security techniques. Mclaren et. al  develops MemDecrypt framework for providing security for live file transfer and file content. They include security to remote user credential. Li et al  describes network security awareness mechanism, which involves different phases to provide effective cyber security awareness in cyber space. Mondejar et. al  presents characterization of linux-based malwares. Their work include automated techniques for classifying malware into related threats. Pandi et al  describe threat model called STRIDE for analyzing threat related activities and cyber-attack. Sudhakar et. al  analyze fileless malware, they present a process model for fileless malware attack. They include modelling to handle lifecycle of fileless malware, which divides into three phases.
For analysis of Bypassing security control method, first we study each of them which are stated as,
Bypassing Network Access Control (NAC)
Bypassing Security software (Antivirus)
Bypassing Windows OS based security control
Bypassing Application-level controls
This is an old pattern method, introduced and worked on basis of 802.1x IEEE standard. A basic NAC technique acquire the control to place security at right place where it prevents intruder to enter into network. Some time it is hard for pent-tester or attacker to bypass this type of method as it more advances in two ways as,
As shown in fig.2. All security controls, which are placed according to security requirement for addition of new network device. Here attacker always try and many times they become successful to add their own network device (element) to targeted network. So that they bypass restriction set by NAC on Kali linux environment.
Bypassing security software (Antivirus)
Fig. 2 Working of NAC
Security software is major obstacle for attacker as all activities can log by this software. Usual antivirus software are relies on various pattern of signature for matching with intrusion activity (like attacked by ransomware, viruses and trojan). Attacker identifies this pattern and use Metasploit framework that allows standalone executable files to bypass this type of detection. Pen- tester or attacker uses various kind of tools for antivirus evasion some of them are describes as,
Using Veil framework
It provides effective protection for detection of any exploits for server and endpoints. As shown in fig. 3. Veil has main menu for selection and payload purpose.
Using Shellter tool
Fig. 3. Veil framework
This is another tool used by various attacker for antivirus evasion. It generally use to inject shell code into any windows application based on 32bit. Fig. 4. Shows Shellter operation mode.
Fig. 4. Modes of Shellter
Fileless techniques for antivirus evasion
This type of bypass techniques is based on network port pattern. It depends on various maturate organization that provide firewall security basis on port number range, like traditional as 4444, 5444 or port number apart from 80 or 443. So, attacker bypass this traditional way and use simple technique to implement port number i.e., 80 or 443 for listening from all clients connected in network.
Bypassing Windows OS based security control
It is common to use windows Operating system (OS) in day oday life work. As it is common, pen-tester and attacker both targeting that system. So they uses different ways to bypass security controls some of them are discussed as,
User Access Control (UAC)
In recent researches, it is found out that there are 52 different ways to bypass windows UAC. As windows administrator build their policy based on Always notify, notify me when program make changes, notify me when program make changes without notifying on desktop and last Never notify. To bypass this attacker just know that who is user identified by system and what types of rights that user have. Following fig. 5. Shows output of running whoami / groups on C:\>
Fig. 5. Output of whoami
Using Fileless technique
This technique use by attacker whenever windows is focused to scanning of all external files coming from outside of system network. This technique based on shell access attack, which include addition of malicious code in existing executable files for attack purpose. Details of shell attack is shown in following fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Use of PowerShell
Using fodhelper method
This is executable file use by windows to managed windows features in setting option. Attacker use the same files to bypass UAC by manipulating the user roles in administrator group.
Bypassing application-level method
After getting into system, attacker or pen-tester always use these techniques to get control over various application for this they use various techniques as,
Using SSH to get tunnel out firewall
Attacker added themselves in internal network to hideout from firewall policies using tunnel past technique on implementation of SSH (Secure Shell).
Bypassing URL filter technique
By using SSH or PowerShell, attacker can intermediate between network connection and port forwarding method. It is used to bypass any restriction applied by security policy. Following Fig. 7 shows implementation of PUTTY tool for the above mentioned task.
Fig. 7. PUTTY tool
After getting all this details about different methods of bypassing security controls. We initiated virtual environment using virtual box 6.2.0 having platform of Kali Linux 2020 as guest system. We install all mentioned tool in section 3 a start operating on that parameter. Following Fig. 8 shows virtual environment of kali linux using virtual box. We calculated different value based on parameters like using tunneling for bypass firewall, evasion of antivirus using Shellter in stealth mode. We tried fodhelper.exe file on Windows 10 platform. Finally, by manipulating inbound and outbound rules we tried bypass application-level controls.
Fig. 8. Kali Linux in virtual environment
RESULT AND EVALUATION
By studying various factors and implementation in section 4, we perform the effective analysis of all these four bypass methods on various factors shown in following fig.9
Fig. 9. Analysis of bypassing security controls
As shown in above fig. 9, it shows all methods are utilize on base of four factors i.e., Assets threats, user access, firewall and root access. Where Root access has top priority by all one to get administrator access of network-oriented system. Secondly firewall is most attacked factor in both Linux and Windows operating system. Application-level bypass need already penetrated system, so it had minimum bypass hits.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
We go through deep level into systematic way for overcoming techniques to bypass security controls. We described different way of bypassing NAC in both pre-admission and post-admission manner. We explained antivirus bypass techniques with two effective tool i.e., Veil and Shellter. Bypassing windows security tool is most common technique acquired by attacker or pen- tester that we focused in this study. Finally, we focus on application level bypass method, that is impressively used by attacker and for that already exploit system is needed. In future, we plan to implement a secure kernel for Linux to overcome bypass method as mentioned in research paper. With this we focused to upgrade firewall policy in view of bypassing itself by attacker.
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