A Qualitative Analysis of Self Regulated Learning in Online Mode and Outcome Achieved During COVID-19 Pandemic

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV11IS080021

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A Qualitative Analysis of Self Regulated Learning in Online Mode and Outcome Achieved During COVID-19 Pandemic

Manoj Kumar Srivastava University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, India

Amit Sinha

ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad, India

Ashish Khare University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, India

Abstract:- The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many lives across the globe. The economy of each country was down and will take time to recover. The education sector suffered lot as we were not prepared to handle such situation. In Indian prospective where the education is not broadly imparted through internet, the students learning outcome was much affected. This paper analyses the effect on learning outcome of students of urban and rural areas in Indian soil during COVID-19. The online education was not so common in India and especially the families of rural areas were not familiar as they are using limited internet data pack. The network issues, bandwidth and reach-ability of data are also few of the major issues in rural areas. However, the students of these areas are generally keen to learn new things and they can spend much time on learning. The present study examines and compares the observed values in two different geographical areas. The data collected on different attributes from class 9th to 12th students for the analysis and experiment as they appear first time in board exams. Three important attributes that may affect the outcome have been taken for the purpose. These are Knowledge level (KL), Assessment Marks (AM) and Participation in the class (PC).

An empirical model uses chi square for an alpha level of 0.05 and two degrees of freedom. The result suggests that the students of rural areas did not perform well with respect to learning outcome and assessment marks over the students of urban areas.

Keywords: Network issues, Bandwidth, Alpha Level, Degrees of freedom, On-line learning.


    When pandemic was spreading rapidly in March 2020 and Indian Government had announced complete LockDown, it was totally unseen among all of us. The factories, industries, tourism, commute facilities and cultural activities were stooped with immediate effect till next announcement. One of the important sectors which suffered lot was education sector. Initially, it was completely stopped. However, the teaching and learning was remain a problem even after some relaxation in LockDown given by Government viz, Unlock1.0. This is due the accommodation of students in a classroom, seminar halls, laboratory and examination room etc. When schools were closed everywhere during COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutes and the teachers had no other option but to change their classrooms into online learning spaces. It was a new crisis observed by our teachers. It did affect not only the education and learning but also created an education inequalities and social and emotion imbalance.

    This paper analyses the teaching strategies in online mode and consequences among students learning outcome. In India, the first observed or preferable performance measurement is happened when student appears in class 10th or in class 12th board examination. Since the question paper is common for all students belonging to same zone and same board, state board, CBSE or ICSE etc, the same measuring tool helps us to measure the learning outcome of students of different areas and background. The present work examines and compares the learning outcome of students of two geographical areas; rural and urban. The different attributes may affect the outcome in online mode of teaching. After analyzing, we observed three attributes that may affect outcome substantially. These are Knowledge level (KL), Assessment Marks (AM) and Participation in the class (PC).

      1. Online Teaching and Learning

        We have noted various challenges for schools, engineering colleges, Universities and coaching institutes etc regarding online teaching, we have found opportunities also during COVID-19 pandemic when we were bound to opt online education and adopt e- learning system. It imparted not only education but also built a healthy bonding between teachers and parents of the students. The use of online platforms such as Google Classroom, Zoom, virtual learning environment and social media and various group forums like Telegram, Messenger, WhatsApp and WeChat are explored and tried for teaching and learning for the first time ever to continue education. This gives another dimension to teaching and learning process. The additional resources and various teaching aids are now common to every student and teachers. The teachers are now creating different modules with user interactive presentations and are available beyond school time also.

      2. SUA & SRA

    In the present study, two different students have been examined: students of urban areas (SUA) and students of rural areas (SRA). The SUA and SRA have some differences because of their level of understandability and adaptability of ICT tools. The SUA spends much time on online learning and explores various options and plug-ins available in that Learning Management System (LMS). The Internet connectivity is not a big issue because students get enough time to prepare and submit the assignments anytime before the deadline whenever the

    connectivity is good. For SRA, even the Internet networks are available, the speed remains too slow for uploading the assignments and attending the classes. Thus, we need to examine the effect of geographical areas on learning outcomes.

    and for all children. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and familiar with it, needs the awareness sessions among all students and teachers.



Due to COVID-19 pandemic the entire change in education and learning process witnessed a basic turn in the scenario from basic assumptions in the pedagogy from offline with face-to-face. Due to this the education system started using Online virtual mode of learning [11, 12]. This change in basic assumptions poses a great challenge for the Higher Institutes as well as the education system. Now they must try hard in coping with the bigger challenge in front of them. This work aims to explore various methods making it secure and the conduction of examination [10] effective. This all is because of the requirement of assessment in online education mode had to face various challenges. With the Initial lockdown, this led to the examination postponement but with this scenario of this pandemic it stayed and the institutes had only choice for conducting examination Online [8]. With its advantages and disadvantages of E-examination and the assessment for every institution, learners, and educators [9] because the technology had started and the option for the big giants like Microsoft, Google and many more companies started their portal for the changing scenario. As per the study conducted, the Online assessments started considering superior to pencil and paper exams for the new normal [7]. With the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020, the schools were shut-down in most of the Countries. Due to it, educationists were not ready for on-line classes, however they were being asked to opt this mode and start taking online classes. As per the report received from different researches done after lockdown, [1, 2], an unseen and unexpected situation were found and it disturbed government initiatives, planning and development of the nation. The teachers have no answer of how to express their example by hand movement and notation while describig a concept. The availability of training aids and resources are also an issue across the globe especially in developing countries. [1].

This pandemic has generated a critical global incident which poses challenge for the teaching fraternity to adopt virtual mode where the use of the technology and to facilitate the students learning the use of digital technologies, may be sometimes for the first time, poses a big challenge in front of most of the teachers for the effective students learning. With the COVID-19 pandemic led the closure of schools due to which the need of substantial changes with the profound consequences in education system. Even after new normal, the imbalance in teaching and education imparting has been seen [2]. This gave another observation like greater socio-economic imbalance [3,14]. The families and parent have also been seen as worried persons and they were not ready for online education like teachers [4]. Considering above points, the present work analyzes three important attributes that may affect the learning outcome and are available in all areas

This paper examines and measures the learning outcome of SUA and SRA. The hypothesis of the work: there is a link between school students of class 9th to 12th standard (board exam) and geographical area in terms of outcome based learning during COVID-19 pandemic.


    The present work uses a mathematical model shown in fig. (i)

    Fig.(i) : Mathematical model for the proposed work

    The input/output (I/O) model uses three attributes Attribue-

    1 (Knowledge levelKL), Attribute-2 (Assessment MarksAM), Attribute-3 (Participation in the classPC) and applies statistical approach through chi square test [13], shown in fig.(ii) and in eq(i).


    Fig.(ii) : Chi-Square test used for the expected and observed values

    Where, c is degrees of freedom, O is observed value, E is expected value

    The Chi-square test is used to compare observed data with data that would be expected to be obtained if a particular hypothesis were true i.e. to ensure that chi-square tests are statistically valid.

    The data collected from 200 SUA and 220 SRA on the basis of three attributes as shown in Table-1

    Table-1: Data collected on three attributes for SUA

    and SRA


    Know ledge level

    Assessm ent Marks

    Participation in the class

















    The methodology uses step wise solution which is depicted below:


    If learning outcome is linked to geographical areas, we will perform a chi-square test for independence.


    The expected value is calculated from eq(ii),mentioned below:

    E = [ (Row Total) * (Column Total) / Total number of Observations ] …eq(ii)

    E value for SUA on the basis of attribute-1(KL) E(SUA-A1) = 109

    E value for SRA on the basis of attribute-1 (KL) E(SRA-A1) = 120

    The Table-1depicts all expected values

    Table-2: Expected Values for Table-1


    Knowle dge level

    Assessmen t Marks

    Participati on in the class


















    The next step is to calculate the value of LHS of eq(i). The calculated values are mentioned in the Table-3:

    Table-3: The value of [(Oi Ei)2 / Ei] for each cell of Table-2


    Knowled ge level

    Assessme nt Marks

    Participati on in the class


















    Calculate the test statistics X which is the sum of values in the Table-3:

    X = 0.743 + 2.05 + 2.33 + 3.33 + 0.384 + 1

    = 9.837

    The degrees of freedom (c) = (Row-1)*(Column-1). In our sample data,

    c = (3-1) * (2-1) = 2


The obtained statistics for sample data is 9.83. The value of critical statistics for an alpha level of 0.05 and 2-degrees of freedom in Chi-Square table is 5.991 which is less than the obtained statistics. This means, we can infer that there is a link between learning outcome and geographical areas of students (SUA and SRA). In other words, SRA have been more sufferer than SUA during COVID-19 pandemic with respect to learning outcome achieved. However, while collecting sample data, it was observed that self regulated learning adds a value in learning outcome for both types of students and outcome may be closer to critical statistics.


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