A Prolific Principle for Highly Immune E-VOTING Conformity by using Mixed Cryptographic Approach

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV1IS6317

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A Prolific Principle for Highly Immune E-VOTING Conformity by using Mixed Cryptographic Approach

A Prolific Principle for Highly Immune E-VOTING conformity by using mixed cryptographic approach

K. N. Sandhya Sarma

Research Scholar, School of IT and Science

Dr. G. R. Damodaran College of Science Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India 641 014.

S. Umamaheswari

Assistant Professor, School of IT and Science

Dr. G. R. Damodaran College of Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India 641 014.

Abstract: The paper proposes a secure internet voting protocol. The scheme ensures the voters privacy and anonymity. The protocol integrates blind signature scheme, secret sharing technique and homomorphic encryption to ensure fair and fraud less voting. The voter identification and anonymity is solved by using public proxy server. The cryptographic approach securely transmits the vote of each voter in a high security lane. In the final phase of our protocol that begins with collection of votes; by using homomorphic encryption we have secretly processed all the ballots in an encrypted form only. Due to this approach only the final computed result is revealed in encrypted form which is intelligible by using Secret sharing scheme.

Keywords: Blind signature, secret sharing, proxy server, homomorphic encryption.

  1. Introduction

    E-voting is one of the applications of blind signatures and secret sharing in cryptography. The main aspect of e-voting is that its design should be simple and similar to the traditional voting. The voter should be able to cast his vote from anywhere irrespective of the location. Voters can take part in election while at work or from home or anywhere else in the globe via Internet. It should also provide high degree of trust and

    security as compared to the manual voting system. The ideas of voting through internet have been proposed by many researchers from both theoretical and practical perspective.

    The most e- voting protocols can be categorized by their approaches into three types: Schemes using mix-nets, schemes using homomorphic encryption and schemes using blind signatures. Our proposed scheme mainly employs blind signatures and Shamirs secret sharing.

    In order to be widely acceptable and in a way to be implemented, every voting system should have certain requirements. The main attributes that an ideal internet voting system should possess are presented in [2, 3]. They are stated as follows:

    • Accuracy: A voting system is considered to be accurate when 1) No one can alter a vote. 2) A valid vote cannot be tampered, deleted or miscounted from the final tally. 3) An invalid vote cannot be counted in the tally.

    • Uniqueness: Democratic schemes ensures: 1) only legitimate voters can cast the vote. 2) Every eligible voter has voted only once.

    • Anonymity: 1) No one can link a vote to the voter. 2) None of the voters can find out how a particular voter has voted.

    • Fairness: Any intermediate outcome cannot be revealed before the finalization of tally center.

    • Verifiability: All the voters can also verify their vote that has been counted during the tally.

    • Robustness: A dishonest voter cannot disrupt the voting.

    • Convenience: Voters do not need any special skill and can complete the voting quickly and easily.

    • Mobility: Voters can vote from anywhere irrespective of the location.

  2. Cryptographic Preliminaries

      1. Blind Signature: Blind Signature is a method in cryptography introduced by David Chaum [5]. It is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is blinded before it is signed. The resulting blind signature is verified against the original and the unblinded message just like a digital signature. A blind decryption can be applied employing the RSA public key. In order to achieve this goal, the data to be signed is disguised before it is given to the signer using a blinding function. This function usually involves the public key

        eof the signer and a random number k.

        m= blinde(m,k).

        The signer signs the blinded message as

        m = signd(m) .

        After the signer has signed the blinded data m, using the private key d, the resulting blinded signature s can be transformed to

        ordinary digital signature. The unblinding function used for this is

        m= unblind (m,r).

      2. Homomorphic Encryption: It is a special type of cryptography in which the sum of two encrypted values is equal to the encrypted sum of values. The encryption algorithm E () is homomorphic if given E(x) and E(y), one can obtain E(x ¬ y) without decrypting x; y for some operation ¬. Homomorphism is an algebraic property useful in electronic voting schemes because it allows finding of the sum of the ballots without decrypting them. RSA [6], El- Gamal [7], Pailler [8] encryption schemes are homomorphic and are used in electronic voting schemes. RSA is a multiplicative homomorphic algorithm

        ci = E(mi) = mie mod N

        Public key is modulus N and exponent e


        c1 · c2 = m1e · m e mod N = (m1 · m2)e mod N E(m1) · E(m2) = E(m1 · m2)

        El-Gamal [7] is an additive homomorphic algorithm. Given two plaintexts m1 and m2 and two corresponding cipher texts

        c1 = Encrypt (m1) = (x1, y1) c2 = Encrypt (m1) = (x2, y2)

        We can compute

        (x1 .x2 , y1 .y2) = ( k1 . k2 mod p, m1 . k1

        . m2 . k2 mod p)

        = (k1+k2 mod p, m1+m2 .k1+k2 mod p)

        = Encrypt (m1 + m2)

      3. Secret sharing:

    Secret sharing refers to method for distributing a secret amongst a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own. Shamir

    [10] and Blakelys [11] Secret Sharing is

    important in information security and network security and have broad applications in the real world. Threshold (t,n) secret sharing scheme allows a dealer to distribute a secret value S to n players; such that atleast (t<n) players are required to reconstruct the secret. Shamirs Secret Sharing scheme is based on polynomial interpolation over a finite field while Blakelys secret sharing has a different approach based on hyper plane geometry.

  3. Related Work

    Our proposed work is based on Fujiako.et.al

    [3] voting protocol, Sensus protocol [2] and Yu-Yi Chen.et.al [4] protocol. Fujiako.et.al

    [3] proposed a secret voting scheme suitable for large scale elections. The computation and communication overhead is small even if number of voters is large. The drawback of this work is the voter cannot complete voting session until the tallying. The voter cannot submit the decryption key until after the voting phase of the election is over. As a result votes cannot be cast in a single session. The Sensus protocol [2] by Cranor.et.al [2] is based on the ideas of Fujioka.et.al [3] and solved this issue of voter waiting till the end of the voting phase. They proposed a scheme where the voter may submit the decryption key immediately after receiving a receipt from the tallier and thus can complete the entire voting process in one single session. In both the protocols the voter privacy and security is concerned more. Voters are relied on to check whether their vote is counted correctly or not. Then again voter has to revisit the polling site after the announcement of the results to verify their votes. Another drawback of boththese protocols is anonymity. Yu-Yi.et.al [4] proposed another secure anonymous scheme which overcomes the drawbacks of the above said protocols. The anonymity is achieved by using public proxy servers. Secret sharing mechanism is employed to

    ensure that all votes are counted correctly. But it is not practical to apply secret sharing on each vote. The proposed scheme makes use of homomorphic encryption to easy the tallying process and secret sharing mechanism to reveal the result.

  4. Stimulus Protocol

    We have proposed some important schemes in our work which will enlighten our protocol more powerful by following phases: –

    Initialization phase: The voter is authenticated using an identification procedure which is very difficult than traditional paper voting. There are three approaches to identify the user of an e- voting system: Through something the user knows, the user is & the user has [14].

    Knowledge of username and its corresponding password is the most widely used identification process (something the user knows). It is simple but can lead to vote coercibility and vote selling very easily. The second approach is using public key infrastructure (PKI). In this case every voter will have a secret key pair (something the user has) authenticated by the electoral authority. Here the voters private key requires high protection and using of smart cards or user held cryptographic token can be used as they are tamper proof in most of the practical situations. The third approach is biometric identification (something the voter is). The fingerprints of the vote is taken as biometric measurement and sent. It is then matched with previously stored pattern.

    A combination of these three identification approaches can be taken for authenticating the user. Once the user is authenticated by the verifying center, ballot is issued to the voter which contains a unique identification code large enough to avoid duplicates with

    other voters. The verifying center also maintains the list of voters who were given the valid ballot to vote.

    Vote casting Phase: Each voter generates

    n set of messages, where n represents the number of candidates. Each set contains either ayes or no. The voter blinds each message and sends them with blinding factor to the authenticator.

    Authentication Phase: Authenticator checks its database to make sure that the voter has not submitted his blinded votes for signature previously. It then individually signs each message and sends them back to the voter, storing the voter identification code in its database. The vote is hidden from the authenticator. The voter unblinds the messages and is left with a set of votes signed by the authenticator. (The votes are signed but not encrypted, so the voter can easily check which vote is yes and which is no).

    Voting phase: The voter encrypts each message using homomorphic encryption and sends the set of messages to the proxy server. Homomorphic encryption is where

    the voter encrypts his or her vote and computes a proof that demonstrates the correct construction of the vote. The proof does not reveal any information about the vote. The proposed scheme uses El-Gamal

    [7] encryption which is additively homomorphic. The proxy sends the encrypted vote and the proof to the tallying center, hiding the IP address of the voter.

    Counting phase: All the encrypted votes are multiplied together and the decryption of the final result gives the sum that would have been obtained by adding the votes. The key used to decrypt the result is shared among several supervisors who must co- operate in the decryption process to obtain the final result. Secret Sharing scheme is used to determine the secret key. The number of votes received and the number of votes recorded by the authenticator and the proxy server can be used to verify the tally.

    The following notations are used to explain the scheme:

    Vi = Voter i.

    IDi= ID of voter i.

    n = number of voters

    m = number of candidates

    (ad, ae, an) = Key pair of Authentication Center [AC]

    (id, ie) = voters key pair

    1, 2, k is large random numbers used for encryption & decryption

    (HKpub ,HKpr) Homomorphic encryption key pair.

    HKpub = (p, , 2) HKpr= a

    The implementation steps include:

    1. Authentication phase

      1. {Vi[CA]}.Voter sends his identification to the certifying authority.

      2. {[CA] Vi}. CA certifies the voter and sends the ballot Bi to voter.

      3. {BiBi/m={vi1, vi2, vi3, vim}}.The Ballot contains m parts where m represents the number of candidates.

      4. {Bi=vij}.vij is the jth part of voter i. The voter casts the vote.

        1 ij

      5. {bij = ae * v (mod n)}. The voter blinds each part using the public key pair (ae, an) of the [AC].

      6. {Vi[AC]}.Voter sends { bij , IDi , bijid

        } to AC.

      7. AC opens the seal using ad and verifies

        (bijid)ie = bij.

      8. Checks the list, whether the voter has

        Previously casted any vote.

      9. AC signs each blinded part of the ballot by computing

        Lij= bijad (mod an).

      10. AC sends Lij sealed with ie back to the voter.

    2. Casting phase

      1. Voter opens Lij with id. Sij= 1-1Lij (mod an). Voter unblinds the vote and finds the signature.

      2. Voter verifies Lij by using the equation vij = (Lij)ae mod an. Sij is the signature of the AC for bij.

      3. Each vij has to be encrypted. E (vij) = (cxij, cyij) where cxij= 2k mod p and cyij

        = ((2) vij. k) mod p.

    3. Voting Phase

      1. {(cxij,cyij), Sij } [TC] the cipher of each part along with the signature is sent to the Tallying Center through The cipher parts of each vote are multiplied in such a way that the sum of the votes received by each candidate is obtained in the decrypted form.

        CXi = (cxi1*cxi2*cxi3 *….. *cxim)

        = xij


        CYi = (cyi1*cyi2*cyi3*….*cyim)

        = yij

    4. Counting phase

    1. There will be m tuples of (CX, CY) representing the encrypted results of

      m candidates.

    2. Each (CXi, CYi) has to be decrypted using the secret homomorphic key HKpr = a.

    3. The secret key a is obtained to the tallying center by computing a Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Shamirs threshold scheme is adopted which states givent points, a secret can be recovered.

    4. Givent points (ai,bi) 1<=i<=t. Lagrange Interpolation formula gives

      f(x)= yi * (x-xj) / (xi-xj)

      f (0) =a=secret key. The secret key can be recovered only if a thresholdt number of supervisors co-operate and give their share.

    5. Each (CXj, CYj) is decrypted yielding the result Rj of each candidate by computing

      2Rj = (CXj) a * CYj (mod p)

    6. R1,R2,R3,Rm will correspond to the total votes gained by each candidate.

    Table 1: Comparison between our protocol with other protocols


    Our protocol

    Fujiako.et.al.s protocol

    Sensus protocol

    Yu-Yi Chen.et.al.s protocol


    It is efficient. The voters can complete their voting in one session.

    Not efficient. Voters should verify whether their votes are counted or not.

    Not efficient as voters are to verify their votes.

    Is efficient. No responsibility for voters to verify their votes.


    Public proxies help in hiding the voters identification and location

    It relies on anonymous communication channel.

    Depends on anonymous channels.

    Voters anonymity is preserved.

    Encryption complexity

    Homomorphic encryption makes i easier to add the votes without decrypting each vote.

    It is not practicable as each vote has to be decrypted before tallying.

    Decryption complexity

    Secret sharing technique is used to reveal the key for decrypting the result. Decryption is applied only to the result.

    Complexity is high here as each vote has to be decrypted using a separate key which are revealed using secret sharing technique.


    No one can predict the vote and the intermediate results.

    No one can predict the vote but intermediate results are predictable.

    No one can predict the

    vote but intermediate results are predictable.

    No one can predict the vote but intermediate results are predictable.


    Voters cannot prove their vote.

    Voters can prove their vote.

    Voters can

    prove their vote.

    Voters are not allowed to prove their vote

  5. Analysis of our reinvigorated protocol

    Fairness: Counting is accomplished with homomorphic encryption and secret sharing scheme is the extreme phase of our scheme. As each part of the vote is encrypted, no one can predict or learn the outcome of each vote before the tally. In our scheme, intruders will not have any idea about the intermediate results before the announcement of the result because the result is also in encrypted form and can be decrypted only by the delegate power of authorities. Any change by the authorities is not possible as the number of votes casted and number of authenticated voters, are recorded and compared.

    Eligibility: In our scheme, only legal voters are permitted to vote. Assume that no one can break the ordinary digital signature scheme. In case a dishonest voter tries to vote, the authenticator checks the list and the person has to create a valid pair of the ballot and the signature by himself.

    Anonymity: The relation between the voters identity and the ballot is hidden by blind signature scheme. The link between the voters identity and the ballot is cut at the proxy server before it is being sent to the tallying center. Moreover to ensure that it is impossible to trace a ballot to a voter, the network address of the packet is replaced by the proxy address. In this scheme each vote is encrypted and it is difficult to trace the identity of the voter.

    Unreusability: To vote twice, voter should get more than a pair of valid ballot and the signature. As the verification is done by one center and the authentication is done by another center, it is difficult for a voter to get the pair of a valid ballot and the signature.

    Accuracy: All the valid votes will be counted. It cannot be altered either by the administrator, proxies, and supervisors or even by the voter himself.

    Uncoercibility: There are occasions when the voter is forced to change his vote. This can happen when the voter is asked to verify his vote after the casting. In the proposed scheme, the voter is not allowed to change or verify his vote, once it is casted. The tally center also cannot change a vote because it is in the encrypted form. The supervisors are allowed to access only the result using secret sharing scheme, so there is no question of tampering the vote by them.

  6. Conclusion

    We have successfully reformed an improved e-voting scheme where the time taken by the voter is less in casting his vote. Our protocol anonymizes the voters identity from the vote and permits the voter to enroll their vote safely and securely. We compare our scheme with Fujiako.et.als, Sensus and Yu- Yi Chen.et.als protocols in Table 1. All the requirements for an ideal electronic voting system are satisfied by our scheme. Each candidate has a bank of votes in an unintelligible form. After the termination of tally process, the result is in encrypted form. All the encrypted votes need not be decrypted here in our scheme; instead of that we are calculating the sum of the encrypted votes. The result is then flashed by using secret sharing scheme.

  7. References

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[3]. Fijioka A, Okamoto t, Ohta k. A practical secret voting scheme for large scale elections. Advances in Cryptology- AUCRYPT92 Proceedings. Springer- Verlag; 1993.p.6.15-6.19.

[4]. Chen Y-Y, Jan J-K, Chen C-L. The design of a secure anonymous Internet voting system. Journal: Computers & Security, 2004, Volume: 23

[5]. David Chaum, R.Rivest, and A.Sherman. Blind signatures for untraceable payments. In blind signatures for Untraceable Payments (New York, 1982), Plenium Press, pp. 199-203.

[6]. Ronald L.Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. A method for obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-key Cryptosystems. Number MIT/LCS/TM- 82. 1977

[7]. Taher El-Gamal. A public-key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. Pages 10 18, 1985.

[8]. Pascal Paillier and David Pointcheval. Efficient public-key cryptosystems provably secure against active adversaries. In ASIACRYPT 99: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology and Information Security, pages 165179, London, UK, 1999. Springer-Verlag.

[9]. Mohammed Al-Fayoumi and Sttar Aboud. Blind Decryption and Privacy Protection. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2 (4): 873-876, 2005

[10]. A Mathematical Approach to Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Rebecca Meissen

[11]. Adi Shamir, How to Share a Secret, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, Nov. 1979

[12]. G. R. Blakley, 1979. Safeguarding cryptographic keys, American Federation of Information Processing Societies Proceedings, New York.

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[13]. Karro J, Wang J. Towards a practical, secure, and very large scale online election. Computer Security Applications Conference, (ACSAC99) Proceedings. 15th Annual; 1999. p. 161e9.

[14]. Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography Second Edition: protocols, algorithms and source code in C,1996

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