A Modern Approach for ATM using Palm Vein Pattern Recognition

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV3IS16100

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A Modern Approach for ATM using Palm Vein Pattern Recognition

1 Muthupandian. V, 2 Banupriya. M

Dept. Of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Assistant Professor of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Oxford Engineering College, Oxford Engineering College,

Trichy, Tamilnadu. Trichy, Tamilnadu.

AbstractBiometric is a precocious scheme of personal authentication using palm vein. The infrared palm image contains palm vein illumination which is used in our system, because of vein illumination it provides high security in ATM application. The proposed system includes: A palm vein image capturing by the help of IR light, detection in region interest, Palm vein extraction by multi-scale filtering and finally matching. The entire system is implemented on a DSP platform and equipped with a novel palm-vein recognition algorithm. The proposed technology has many potential applications such as an ultra secure system for ATMs and banking transaction, server log in system, an authorization system for front doors, schools hospitals wards storage area, high security areas in airports, and even facilitating library lending by doing away with the age old library card system. The experimental result which demonstrates the recognition using palm vein authentication is good.

Keywords Palm vein recognition; Biometrics; ATM; DSP; Personal Identification.


Image processing methods are having two principal application areas- improvement of pictorial dossier for human interpretation, and processing of scene data for autonomies machine perception. In advent-grade picture transformation framework, initial phase the whole time is image Acquisition is oblige procuring a picture, after a computerized picture has been gotten ,the following step manages Pre-processing its capacity is to enhance the picture in ways that expand the chance for accomplishment alternate courses of action, the following step manage segmentation it bindle a data picture into consistitution parts or items, representation &Description manages make illumination in interrelation that suitable for machine handling, and after that recognition is it allot a name to an items, and last interpretation includes intending to a collect to perceived articles.


  1. Visualization Invisible objectives are observed.

  2. Image Sharpening and Restoring To create a better image

  3. Image Retrieval Seek for the image of interest.

  4. Estimation of Pattern – Measure assorted objects in an image

  5. Image Recognition Distinguish the object in an image

A progress is made in the field of biomedical imagined technologies have generally resulted in high product cost.

Another major concern is the probability factor. We have addressed these two major concerns in these devices to a maximum extern. As compared to infrared imaging technique is a relatively less explored area but promises to deliver high-end result at low development cost. The major clinical problem faced by the physicians is difficulty in accessing veins for intra-venous drug delivery and other purposes. It is relevant in case of pediatrics obese, dark toned people and also in adult patients. Unnecessary puncturing of vein is done by the physicians because the visibility of vein is not clear. Therefore this causes assorted Problems to the patients and especially in children and aged. The result is swelling, irritation, bleeding and blocking of the skin. Although a significant amount of works has been done in this area and devices like accurate vein viewer have came up, but the major problem lies in their cost and probability factor.


Human eyes can only notices visible light that occupies

A narrowband (400-700mm) of the enterer electromagnetic spectrum. However, there is much more illumination contained in other bands of the electrometric spectrum deleted by the objects of interest. For human vein pattern on the firing, the visionless under normal visible light condition is very low. However, this can be resolved by using near- infrared envision techniques. The significant attributes

near- IR imaging which makes it suitable for vein detection are:

  1. Nearest Infrared Lights can penetrate into the biological tissue up to 3mm of depth.

  2. The reduced hemoglobin in venous blood consumes more of this infrared radiation than the surrounding tissues.

    Therefore, by exposing desired body part with the infrared radiation of specific wavelength, the vein image can be capture by an IR camera in the resulting image, the veins appears darker then the surrounding tissue, biologically; there is a medial spectral windows which extenders approximately from about 700 to 900 nm, where light in this spectral windows penetrates deeply into tissues, thus allowing non-invasive investigation. The infrared radiation is consumed in different wavelength in assorted type of tissues. In order to achieve visual penetration through the assorted tissues, should be behaved under a very tight optical window, namely 740nm up to 960nm (inside the near infrared part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum). Hence in this device near infrared technique is chosen rightly to clearly view the vein.

    Procedure for Paper Submission


    A review of prior work on palm vein authentication in the previous section outline the need for the comparative performance on the most promising palm vein extraction and matching process. In addition, the previous efforts have been more hygienic, can offer higher user acceptability, and preserve the vascular pattern from distortion and deserve future research effects.

    Main contributions from this paper can be summarized as follow. First this paper investigates two new approaches which extract palm vein feature and achieve most promising performance. The subspace learning approach using multi-scale principal component analysis invested in this paper extracts the vessel structures by analyzing the normalized palm vein image and here not comparing the Eigen values mainly comparing the palm vein and palm print.


    The palm vein images in contactless imagining presented a lot of translation and rotation variations. Therefore, more stringent preprocessing steps are required to extract a stable and aligned ROI. The preprocessing steps essentially recover a fixed-size ROI from the acquired image which has been normalized to minimize the rotational, translation, scale changes.

    1. Image enhancement

      The palm vein images occupied in our work were acquired under near infrared illumination (NIR); the images generally appear darker with low contradiction. Therefore, image enhancement to more clearly illustrate the vein and texture patterns is required. we first estimate the back ground intensity profiles by dividing the image into overlapping 32*32 blocks (three pixels are overlapping between two block address blocky of gait) and the average gray level pixels in each block compute consequently, the estimated back ground intensity profile is resized to same size as the original image using bicubic interpolation and the resulting images is subtracted from the original ROI images. Finally histogram equalization is employed to obtain the normalized and enhanced palm images. Image enhancement has been quite successful in improving the details and contrast of the ROI.

    2. Image Segmentation and Normalization

The key objective while segmenting the ROI is to automatically noralize the region in such a way that the facsimile variations, caused by the infraction of the user with the imaging devices, can be minimized. In order to make the authentication processes more effective and powerful progress, it is necessary to build a coordinate system that is invariant (Nearly) to such novity. It is judicious to associate the coordinate system with the palm itself since we are seeking the invariance corresponding to it. Therefore to build up the coordinate system, key points must be localized and these key points must be localized and these key points are easily identified in touch-based imagining but should be automatically generate for contactless imaging. From the acquired palm images are capture by a camera after the input image can finalized, so that we are able to separate the palm vein vicinity the background vicinity. This is followed by the estimation of the distance from the center position of the binaries palm to the boundary of the palm. The potential scale change in the contactless environment can be quite large, and in order to account for this variation, it is wise to adaptive selective the location and size of the region ROI according to certain image specific measures from the palm. This method is more computationally efficient since no additional sampling/computations are required. After segmentation, the ROI image are scaled to generate a fixed size vicinity and the whole process is illustrated in fig1.1 the other process of blocks can explained in below that is feature extraction, template generation process, stored template further processing statements can previously stored in the stored template

,matching process whether the palm vein image can matched with the previous result images is that is main concept of

matching process and final one is application devices that other

hard ware derives that denote ting other old existing process similarly.


Stored TemplateAccept


Pre-proce ssing

Feature extraction

Template generation


Pre-proce ssing

Feature extraction

Template generation


Input palm image


Input palm image


6. Extract the sub image with in the ROI.

4. Palm vein extraction

Hand vein pattern have two main feature: ending (end points). The former is the end point of a thinned line, while the latter is the junction point of three lines. The detection of bifurcation and endings in the preprocessed image can be behaved in parallel. Intermediate results are summed by simple or logic before the feature of false is eliminated. This illustrated all steps for palm vein future extraction. In this paper feature extraction had used PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm and Maximum Minimum Distance Method (MMDM) and this similar procedure can be implementing for testing process then only the user must including the testing process. Whether the user authenticated image can be matched other must reject. Stored template block is user illumination process can implement all steps

And storing final result of palm vein that images can match that should be authentication (Authentication matched with only one images). Refer fig1.1 Last one is application device in our existing system immune concept is password management whether the magnetic strip number and card numbers are matched its automatically stroller machine can scrolled and count the amount transfer through

a user.

Fig.1.1 Simulation Block Diagram for Palm Vein Authentication

3. ROI extraction from palm vein patterns

After image capture, a small area(64*64 pixels)or (128*128pixels) of a palm vein image is located as the region of interest (ROI) to extract the feature and compare different palms. Using the feature with in ROI for concession can improve the computation efficiency significantly. Future, because this ROI is located by a normalized coordinates based on the palm boundaries, the recognition error caused by a user who slightly rotate or shift his/her hand is minimized. The procedure of ROI location

  1. Binaries the input image.

  2. Obtain the boundaries gap.

  3. Compute the tangent of the two gaps, use this tangent connect(x1, x2)and (y1, y2) as the Y-axis of the palm coordinate.

  4. Use a line passing through the midpoint of the two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) which is also perpendicular to y-axis as the x-axis (the linear perpendicular to the tangent. Whether some times the ROI taken corner of the palm and its perpendicular through x-axis and y-axis

  5. The ROI is located as square of fixed size whose center or corner has a fixed distance to the palm coordinate origin.


Palm vein matching technique is first time implementing in hardware. A palm vein scanners are available in market but it not in India but it has high cost , so that similar function can implementing in this hardware by the help of raspberry pi ARM board, pi camera, NIR LEDs (780 nm).

Raspberry pi

The credit-card sized computer is capable of many of the thinks like pc, spreadsheet, word-processing and games. It also plays high-definition video. It can run several flavors of Linux and being used to teach kids all over the world how to program. The raspberry pi is so small and has powerful Broadcom BCM2835, a system-on-chip that contains an ARM 176JZFS with floating point running at 700MHz, and a video core 4GPU. The GPU provides open GL ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated openCV, and 1080p30 H.264 high-profile decodes and is capable of 1 Texel/s 24GFLOPs of general purpose compute. You can directly plug the raspberry pi into your HDTV, you could watch blue ray quality video using H.264 at 40MBits/s The module B also has a 10/100 Ethernet port so you can surf the web (or serve web page) from right there on the pi. The computer boot volume lives on an SD card, so it easy to prepare, run is an debug several different operating system on the same hardware. The model Bs two built-in USB port provide enough connectivity for a mouse and keyboard, but if you want to add more you can use a USB hub.

Fig2.1 Raspberry pi ARM board

port theres no power button so the pi will begin to boot as soon as power is applied, to turn it off simply remove power.

On top of all that, the low level peripherals on the pi make it great for hardware hacking. The 0.1 spaced GPIO header on the pi gives you access to 8GPIO, UART,I2C, SPI as well as 3.3v and %v sources.

Raspberry pi camera

Raspberry pi camera is 5mp camera module capable of 1080 video and still images and connects directly to your Raspberry pi. Connect the included ribbon cable to the CSI (camera serial interface) port on raspberry pi board.

The board itself is tiny, at around 25mm*20mm*9mm and weighting in at just over 3g, making it perfect for mobile or other applications where size and weight are important. The sensor has a native resolution of 5mp, and has a fixed fuscous lenses on board. In terms of still images, the camera is capable of 2593*1944 pixel static image, and support 1080p30, 720p60

OS configuration

Rasbian OS image will flash to the Raspberry pis SD card using win disk imager. Once that flashed the disk image using the method above, place the SD card into our Raspberry pi, plug in the HDMI monitor, any keyboards and then the power cable. Pi board should begin to boot and you should able to see Rasbian on on our system.

Then install the required software package:

  1. OS should download from the Raspberry pi.org.in pass through the SD.

  2. Download Raspberry pi camera package.

  3. Installing the camera package following steps

    1. Sudo apt- get update

    2. Sudo apt- get upgrade

    3. Enable sudo Raspi- config

    4. Sudo apt- update

    5. Sudo apt- get install-y gpac

    6. Sudo apt- get install-y omxplayer

  4. Sudo user- boot

Raspberry pi Block Diagram

Fig 2.2Hardware Block Diagram for Palm Vein Authentication

Whether the pi camera fully coated with the NIR LEDs that is 780nm this light will penetrate inside the three skin layer then only vein image can capture by the camera here 5v power supply used here. Two USB ports are available in Raspberry pi board first port is used for mouse and second ports are used for keyboard. Monitor can be connected by the help of VGA (video Graphics Array) and finally buzzer unmatched processing time that arise sound.

and 640*480p60/90 vide

Fig 2.2 Hardware PIN configuration

Labels- clear as Mud

The labels above are the names of the pins on the Broadcom system chip to which the pin is physically connected. Much of the confusion around the GPIO is due to this label, their relationship to the Broadcom labels and how it referred in the program.

Power pins

The header provides 5v on pin and 3.3v power supply is limited to 50mA. The 5v supply draws current directly from your micro USB supply so can use whatever is left over after the board has taken its share. A 1A power supply could supply up to 300mA once the board has drawn 700mA.

Basic GPIO

The header provides 17 pins that can be configured as inputs and outputs. By default they are all configured as input except GPIO 14&15. In order to use these pins must tell the system whether they are inputs or outputs.

Building Open CV

Building open CV from source using Cmake, using the Command Line and entering binary directory

Cmake [<some optional parameter>] <path to the open CV source directory>

For example:

Cd ~/openCV mkdir release cd release




The palm vein for every individual is unique, even for identical twins is different palm veins are present. The palm vein authentication in ATM machines highly secure than password signatures.


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