A Comprehensive Study On Li-fi Technology & Future Scope

DOI : 10.17577/NCRTCA-PID-001

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

A Comprehensive Study On Li-fi Technology & Future Scope

A Comprehensive Study on Li-Fi Technology

& Future Scope

Bangalore, India


Bangalore, India

Abstract the abbreviation Li- Fi stands for Light-dedication. The German physicist Harald Haas first proposed the idea in 2011. Li-Fi technology utilizes LED bulbs to transmit data through light, leveraging the fact that the human eye cannot perceive the rapid changes in the intensity of the light. This innovative technology, referred to as Light Fidelity (Li-Fi), harnesses light for high-speed wireless data transmission, is extensively reviewed and analyzed in this study from a variety of perspectives. It also covers its guiding concepts, methods, and implied influence on the communication system industry. The many components of this study include a thorough analysis of the literature, suggested groupings, and statistics, which are further considered to cover operations, system architecture, system factors, benefits, and drawbacks. Li-Fi as well as comparisons with other technology. Li-Fi network multi-user access methods are explored, and unresolved concerns are thoroughly covered. Additionally, it analyses the difficulties and opportunities presented by Li-Fi as well as potential paths for discourse in this area. Li-Fi technology allows for far faster data transmission than the standard Wi-Fi we use because we live with data daily. Through VLC, or Visible Light Communication (VLC) serves to transmit high-speed communication, operating in a manner akin to Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi, data transfer and communication systems are done. Li-Fi has previously attained high speed in labs and offers higher bandwidth, security, effectiveness, vacuity, and connectivity. The speed at which VLC transmits signals by turning on and off lights in a matter of seconds makes it impossible to be recognized or pursued by mortal eye. The study provides a general overview of Li-Fi technology and culminates with a thorough taxonomy of literature comparison, which forms the basis of

the suggested open problems and investigation trends.

Keyterms Li-Fi (Light Fidelity), VLC (Visible Light Communications), RF (Radio Frequency), OWC, LED Bulbs

Li- Fi operates by varying the amount of light emitted by light- emitting diodes (LEDs) to transmit data. The

LED bulbs fleetly flitter at a speed that's inappreciable to the mortal eye. Photodiodes or image detectors admit these light signals and convert them back into data. This process allows for bidirectional communication, making Li- Fi a implicit volition to traditional wireless technologies.

The LIFI technology has made it possible to create structurally reliable tube light sources without the declination mechanisms associated with traditional beacon electrodes. A significant-advanced light source that is not confined to high-pressure mercury or high- pressure xenon diapason has also been made possible. The employment of high-efficiency essence halides in high-brilliance electrode-less lights in compact bow operations is made possible by this novel light-source technology. As a result, a beacon that emits 5500 lm into a 27 mm2-sr cavity andoperates at 170 Wisproduced.

Likewise, obstacles like walls or physical obstructions obstruct the transmission of light, limiting the range and trust ability of Li- Fi. still, ongoing exploration and development sweats are concentrated on prostrating these limitations by perfecting the effectiveness of light modulation, developing smarter receiver technologies, and exploring cold-blooded results that combine Li- Fi with other wireless technologies.

During the Ted-Talk, Professor Harald Hass stated the problems faced by Wi-Fi which needs to be rectified soon:

  • Conventional Wi-Fi relies on limited and scarce radio waves for data transmission. The amount of available spectrum is decreasing as 3G and 4G technologies advance.

  • Efficiency: In the entire world, there are 1.4 million cell phone masts. Those masts use a huge amount A significant portion of the energy consumed by the station is allocated towards cooling rather than radio wave emission reality, such drives are only efficient.

  • Availability: Radio waves can't be utilized everywhere, especially in hospitals, chemical labs and power plants and air services.

  • Security: Radio waves used for security can pass through walls. Due to its easy interception, this results in

a large number of security businesses.

breakthrough wireless communication system known as Li-Fi transmits data using visiblee lighht transmission. This emerging technology has garnered significant attention from researchers and industry experts due to its potential to address the limitations of traditional wireless systems like Wi-Fi. A review of the literature reveals key insights into various aspects of Li-Fi technology. In recent years, researchers have focused on exploring the potential applications of Li-Fi. Anish Prabhakaran and Kavya K. (2019) examined Li-Fi applicability in indoor environments and the Internet of Things (IoT). They discussed the potential benefits of Li-Fi in terms of faster and more secure data transmission in indoor settings, as well as its potential to support IoT connectivity. Overall, the reviewed literature highlights the potential of Li-Fi as a promising technology for high-speed wireless communication that is extremely fast. It highlights the benefits of Li-Fi, including its higher data rates, enhanced security, and reduced interference. Furthermore, the literature addresses the challenges associated with Li-Fi, proposing potential solutions and research directions to overcome them. These insights provide a solid foundation for further exploration and research in the field of Li-Fi technology.

Mbps are supported. The protocols used in Li-Fi communication is developed after messages developed by the IEEE 802 working group. It describes VLC/Li-Fi Physical Subbox (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) Subbox.

The following various modulation techniques are employed by Li- Fi systems.

  1. OOK: On-Off Keying Although the

    802.15.7 standard employs Manchester rendering to make the time between positive and negative beats equal, this still requires twice as much bandwidth as before. Run length limited (RLL) coding is utilized at higher bit rates because it is spectrally more efficient. The addition of an OOK extension that positions the aggregate affair correctly to support dimming.

  2. VPPM: Variable Position Modulation of Palpitations The position of the palpitation over a predetermined time period is used by PPM to encode the data. The palpitation must last for a long enough period to link to various positions. Like PPM, VPPM enables adjustment of the palpitation range to accommodate light dimming.

  3. CSK: Color Shift Keying If the lighting system makes use of RGB-type LEDs, this is employed. Combining various light colors allows the data to be carried by the color itself, keeping the affair's intensity almost constant. Different colors are created by combining the RGB main sources, which are then encoded as bits of information. The transceivers' complexity is made more sophisticated, which is a drawback.

  4. SCIPPM: PPM for Sub-Carrier Inverse. There are two parts to this system: a sub- carrier part and a DC part. Lighting and signaling are the only uses for the DC component. In order to conserve energy, SCPPM (Sub-Carrier PPM) is utilized when there is no necessity for lighting or indication.

  5. FSK: Keying usinga frequency shift. In this method, data is presented by changing the frequency of the carrier signal. There must be two separate instances before passing two unique values (0 and 1).

  6. SIM-OFDM: Sim-OFDM, which stands for Single Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, is a variant of the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme used in wireless communication systems. Sim-OFDM is commonly used in various wireless communication standards and systems, including wireless local area networks (WLANs), 4G LTE-Advanced, and 5G New Radio (NR). It enables efficient and reliable communication in scenarios where multiple receive antennas are available, such as in MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems.

Fig 2: LED Bulb

In Li-Fi technology, the changes in data transmission with the size of LED are certainly significant. Different sizes of LEDs can be used to achieve different baud rates and data transmission. Standard-sized LED bulbs can be used to make micro-LEDs that can control millions of light intensity variations. The transmission speed of the micro-LED lamp is 3.5 Gbps, while the transmission speed is up to 10 Gbps. Small LED lights allow the shutter to shine, transmitting enormous amounts of data (measured in Gbps) as a result.

gadget and magnified. However, if the LED is ON, broadcast a digital 1; otherwise, transmit a number 0.

  • Capacity: Radio swells are 10000 times more distant than this device. effectiveness Since LED lights use less energy, they are generally efficient.

  • Accessibility: It is accessible everywhere there is light.

  • Security: Light waves cannot pass through

    walls, making them immune to interception and abuse by anyone with malign intentions.

  • Power saver: Because a single bulb can transmit both light and data, it will use less energy than current wireless communication

methods. The radio electromagnetic surge pollution will be lessened.

High brilliance LEDs are strong proponents of current and future lighting technologies for wireless VLC because they have superior power efficiency, long life considerations, superior moisture resistance, lower heat generation, and smaller sizes than conventional lighting styles. Because our mobile devices are so data-starved, the US Federal Dispatches Commission warned of an impending disaster in 2009, warning that we would radio frequency power will run out soon. Li-Fi can increase bandwidth, particularly now that a lot of the structure is already in place.


  • High-Speed Data transfer: One of the primary objectives of Li-Fi technology is to provide rapid data transmission rates. transfer capabilities. In comparison to Wi-Fi and other conventional wireless technologies, Li-Fi uses visible light as the communication medium to increase data

    transfer rates. to verify the customers' use of technology in banks.

  • Increased Bandwidth and Spectrum Efficiency: Li-Fi technology aims to address the growing demand for bandwidth by utilizing the visible light spectrum. With a vast portion of the electromagnetic spectrum available, Li-Fi can potentially offer increased bandwidth, thereby supporting the ever-increasing data requirements of modern applications and devices.

  • Improved Wireless Connectivity in Challenging Environments: Li-Fi technology aims to provide wireless connectivity in environments where radio frequency-based wireless technologies face limitations.

  • Enhanced Security and Privacy: Another objective of Li-Fi technology is to provide improved security and privacy in wireless communication. Since visible light does not penetrate through physical barriers like walls, Li-Fi signals are confined to the space where the light is present.

  • Energy Efficiency and Environmental Friendliness: Li-Fi technology aims to be energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. By utilizing LED lights for data transmission, Li-Fi can leverage existing lighting infrastructure, resulting in energy savings.

  • Integration with Existing Infrastructure and Devices: Li-Fi aims to seamlessly integrate with existing infrastructure and devices, making it compatible with various applications and technologies.

  • Exploration of New Use Cases and Applications: Li-Fi technology creates possibilities for novel uses and applications. The purpose is to explore and discover innovative applications in domains such as indoor wireless communication, internet-of- things connectivity, smart cities, augmented reality, and secure data communication in sensitive environments.

    • The installation of optical fibre lines in hospitals requires caution. Modern medical

      equipment in the operating room can utilise Li-Fi.

    • Li-Fi can be utilized for business signals, which will connect with the buses' LED lights and lessen the likelihood of accidents.

    • There are countless numbers of street lights installed all throughout the planet. Each of these traffic signals offers free access and current business phrase warnings.

    • Li- Fi can work aquatic where Wi- Fi fails fully, creating everlasting gaps in service/ navigation operations.

    • It can be utilized in chemical or petroleum factories where alternative transmission or frequency might be risky.

    • Creating interactive TV programs for TV applications.

Marketable LEDs are currently not much smaller than 1 mm2. Scottish researchers continue to work to create LEDs as small as 1 mm2 – one micron, or 1,000 times smaller. In addition to fitting more into a given space than larger LEDs, these micron- sized LEDs can reportedly turn on and off 1,000 times faster. By rapidly blinking a network of 1,000 micro-LEDs can transfer data thousand times faster than a standard LED bulb, allowing access to a whole new realm of communication beyond our wildest dreams. A full two-way data transfer exceeding several Gbit/s in each direction is 1000 times more active than when that system is symmetrical in a conventional communication system.

Fig 3: OSI Layer Reference Model for VLC communication Layer.

significantly less time. Additionally, it eliminates the restrictions placed on Wi-Fi addicts. Since Li- Fi makes use of the existing infrastructure, such as the lights and lighting components that are installed in almost all interior spaces, it is an accessible technology. As there are no hazardous materials in light, it is also regarded as a green technology. This section excludes RF-sensitive measures that may have adverse effects on human health due to 5G networks, such as high- frequency effects. Li-Fi connections also work as an advanced and reliable connection based on a V2V framework (like 5G). Li-Fi is ready to seamlessly integrate with the 5G core and can alleviate several significant difficulties that 5G faces. The Li- Fi system provides high data rates along illuminated and the RF system provides penetrating content, so combining the two systems has several advantages. The Visible Light Communication (VLC) system has emerged as a viable alternative to traditional wireless technologies, due to its sustainable environmentally friendly connectivity, sufficient bandwidth resources and Li-Fi upgrades by the Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems in Dresden, Germany According to candidate Frank Deick. Li-Fi has the potential to achieve data transmission rates equivalent to USB connections, a feat that proves challenging for wireless technologies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. He also lists another benefit of Li-Fi, namely that it has quiescence that is on the order of forevers as opposed to Wi-Fi's quiescence that is on the order of milliseconds.

Another problem with Li-Fi is that its frequency range is quite narrow (400-800 THz, or roughly 500 Mbps over four bases and 120 Mbps over 65 bases), which limits its coverage area. It's a one- way connecton, thus the connected device can only download data. Walls cannot be penetrated by the light, and its range of effect is constrained. Large-scale VLC usage can help offset high system installation costs while also lowering ongoing operating costs like power and other expenditures associated with energy conservation. Li-Fi and Wi-Fi offer distinct wireless connectivity solutions. While Wi-Fi is widely used for general wireless coverage in buildings, Li-Fi, based on VLC technology, excels in high- density wireless data distribution. Comparing Wi- Fi technology with other modern wireless technologies, it seems to provide a high transfer rate of around 150 Mbps.

A table outlining the technical differences between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi is provided:

The comparisons between Li-Fi and RF and Li-Fi and other OWC technical services are highlighted in this section. There are four different types of OWC technologies: FSO, VLC, OCC, and Li-Fi. Each of these technologies' typical uses can be categorized based on four fundamental factors: link data rate, interval, two-way mode and communication mode.

Since it is unlicensed, the OWC spectrum provides greater security than RF-based wireless networks. Three-tier networks are made possible by the availability of VLC or Li-Fi cells, which adds a new layer.

We may soon run out of radiofrequency bandwidth due to overuse of radio waves for communication. In place of radio waves, LiFi can be utilized for close-range communication. According to some, radio frequency utilized in Wi-Fi and mobile communication can lead to brain cancer. Li-Fi is an effective remedy for this issue.

Fig 4: Image displaying the comparison between Li-Fi & other OWC networks.

  • Li-Fi in healthcare: In comparison to wireless technology, medical and healthcare technology has lagged. Wi-Fi is not permitted in operating rooms due to radiation safety issues, and there is also a general dearth of dedicated spectrum. Li-Fi fixes the issue because, in operating rooms, lights are not only permitted but also frequently the most conspicuous (pun intended) fixtures. Li-Fi has a 10,000 times wider spectrum than WiFi, as Haas points out in his TED Talk.

  • Remote and Rural Areas: Li-Fi can help bridge the digital divide by providing connectivity in remote and rural areas. By utilizing existing infrastructure like solar-powered LED lights, Li-Fi can offer affordable and accessible internet access to underserved communities, contributing to digital inclusion and socioeconomic development.

  • Transportation Systems: Li-Fi can enhance wireless communication in transportation systems, including airplanes, trains, and automobiles. It can facilitate high-speed data transfer for infotainment systems, passenger connectivity, real-time information updates, and vehicle-to-vehicle communication, contributing to improved passenger experience and road safety.

  • Secure and Restricted Environments: Li-Fi inherent properties, such as limited range and the inability of light to penetrate physical barriers, make it well-suited for secure environments. It can be employed in areas where data security and privacy are paramount, such as military installations,

    government buildings, financial institutions, and healthcare facilities.

    • Indoor Wireless Communication: Li-Fi can provide high-speed wireless connectivity in enclosed spaces like houses, offices, hospitals, and educational institutions. It can support data-intensive applications like video streaming, online gaming, and large file transfers, enhancing the user experience and productivity in these settings.

    • Retail and Hospitality: Li-Fi technology can be deployed in retail stores, shopping malls, and hospitality venues to provide location-based services, personalized advertising, and interactive customer experiences. Li-Fi- enabled lighting fixtures can serve as a medium for transmitting information, offers, and directions to customers' mobile devices.

    • Hazardous Environments: Li-Fi can be valuable in hazardous environments such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and mining operations, where traditional wireless technologies may pose safety risks due to the presence of flammable or explosive materials. Li-Fi non-electromagnetic nature can offer a safer alternative for wireless communication.

The potential and prospects of Li-Fi technology in the market are optimistic and ongoing research and development efforts continue to expand its potential applications and capabilities. Here are some key areas that represent the scope of Li-Fi technology in the near future:

  1. Li-Fi has the potential to eventually reach even greater data transfer rates, which would increase data transmission speeds. To increase the speed and effectiveness of data transmission, researchers are investigating cutting-edge modulation techniques including MIMO systems, which involve multiple input and multiple output, and OFDM, which stands for orthogonal frequency- division multiplexing. This may result in data rates of many gigabits per second, allowing for quicker and more fluid communication.

  2. Integration with 5G Networks: Li-Fi can complement 5G networks and address their limitations, such as limited indoor coverage and congestion in dense urban areas. The integration of Li-Fi with 5G can provide enhanced wireless

    connectivity, especially in indoor environments, offering high-speed data transmission, reduced latency, and improved network capacity.

  3. Hybrid Communication Systems: Future developments may involve the integration of Li-Fi with other wireless communication technologies, creating hybrid systems that leverage the strengths of each technology. Combining Li-Fi with Wi-Fi or cellular networks can provide seamless connectivity, allowing devices to switch between different wireless technologies based on availability, capacity, and specific requirements.

  4. Internet of Things (IoT) Integration: Li-Fi high- speed and secure communication capabilities make it well-suited for IoT applications. Future developments may focus on optimizing Li-Fi for IoT connectivity, enabling efficient data exchange between a large number of devices. Li-Fi can contribute to the growth of smart homes, smart cities, industrial IoT, and other IoT-driven domains.

  5. Li-Fi for Beyond Visible Light: At present, Li- Fi makes use of the visible light spectrum for its operation, communication, researchers are exploring the use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as infrared and ultraviolet, to expand the scope of Li-Fi technology. These efforts may open up new possibilities and applications, particularly in specialized environments and specific use cases.

  6. Li-Fi for LiDAR and Positioning: Li-Fi can be integrated with The technology known as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) uses light to measure & create high-resolution maps. Combining Li-Fi with LiDAR can enable precise indoor positioning, navigation, and tracking systems, offering applications in areas such as robotics, autonomous vehicles, and augmented reality.

  7. Power and Energy Management: Future developments in Li-Fi technology may focus on improving energy efficiency and power management. This includes advancements in LED technology, efficient modulation techniques, and smart algorithms to optimize energy consumption. These improvements can contribute to sustainable and energy-efficient communication systems.

  8. Standardization and Commercialization: As Li- Fi continues to evolve, efforts in standardization and commercialization will be crucial. Standardization bodies and industry alliances are working towards establishing common protocols and specifications to ensure interoperability and widespread adoption of Li-Fi technology. This will facilitate the development of commercial products, services, and applications.

Using LEDs for Visible Light Communication (VLC) can be a workable solution for long- distance accessibility and ubiquity. The exciting problems of building low-cost visible light communication (VLC) introduces practical methods using processors if LED lighting is envisioned as the future of lighting. VLC utilizing high-brightness LEDs emerges as a promising technology for widespread communication. This technology brings numerous benefits, including energy efficiency through Solid State Lighting technology and rapid data transfer within internal operations & business security in the external environment.

The paper contributes to the of knowledge that is existing by synthesizing and analyzing relevant literature, offering a comprehensive understanding of Li-Fi technology and its implications. The conclusions drawn from the research present an overview of the current state of Li-Fi technology, while the identified future prospects highlight areas for further exploration and innovation.

Overall, the journal paper emphasizes the significance of Li-Fi as an emerging technology, its potential impact on wireless communication, and Sustained research, development, and standardization endeavors are necessary to fully

unleash the potential of Li-Fi technology. The findings encourage further investigation and exploration of Li-Fi technology to realize its benefits in various domains and applications.

[1] LIFI A Course in Wireless Visible Light Communications – M.Sc. Sowmiya, G. Visali, Indira Gandhi College of Technology and Technology for Women, Kanchipuram, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Technology and Technology, Chennai

[2] Li-Fi Technology: Information Transfer via Visible Light, Anurag Sarkar, Dr. Shalabh Agarwal, Dr. Asoke Nath.

[3] Overview of Li-Fi Technology – Sushma L

[4] Li- Fi Network Research Review Open Issues, operations and unborn Directions, Rozin Badeel, ShamalaK. Subramaniam, Zurina Mohammad Hanapi, Abdullah Mohammad.