Overview of ESP8266 Wi-Fi module based Smart Irrigation System using IOT

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Overview of ESP8266 Wi-Fi module based Smart Irrigation System using IOT

Sourav Das

1B.Tech Student, Department of Mehanical Engineering,WBUT University, Asansol, India

2Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,WBUT University, Asansol, India

Abstract This paper demonstrates the efficient use of Internet of Things for the traditional agriculture. It shows the use of Arduino and ESP8266 based monitored and controlled smart irrigation systems, which is also cost-effective and simple.It is beneficial for farmers to irrigate there land conveniently by the application of automatic irrigation system. This smart irrigation system has pH sensor, water flow sensor, temperature sensor and soil moisture sensor that measure respectively and based on these sensors arduino microcontroller drives the servo motor and pump.Arduino received the information and transmitted with ESP8266 Wi- Fi module wirelessly to the website through internet. This transmitted informationis monitor and control by using IOT. This enables the remote control mechanism through a secure internet web connection to the user. A website has been prepared which present the actual time values and reference values of various factors needed by crops. Users can control water pumps and sprinklers through the website and keep an eye on the reference valueswhich will help the farmer increase production with quality crops.

Keywords – Soil Moisture, Temperature, pH Sensor,Router, ESP8266,Arduino microcontroller.


In the current phase, one of the world's major problems is lack of water and water is consumed abundantly in agriculture. Therefore an appropriate water consumption system is required.Currently,almost all irrigation systems are physically regulated. The transformation in the information technology has removed lots of impossibilities. In these years, the rise of our cell phones, tablets, automobiles, "smart" technology has expend the market and has transformed into another standard in the business. Internet of things empower thespecificinterrelationship amongseveralappliances, equipment, and services based on Internet and this technology also helps further to provide comfort to people to do work easily.Smart irrigation is an innovative scenario where many researchers are taking interest and for decades it is developing and emerging.

Fig.1. Water Availability

Pressure on the water distribution system is increasing and the significance of water management has increased due to the sustainability irrigated farming.Generally, the main purpose of smart irrigation is to reduce manpower, water resources and power consumption .Tensiometric and Volumetric methods are used to manage the soil moisture based irrigation, which is nearly simple but this is similar to the characteristic curve of soil water which is different from the type of soil .Routine maintenance is required for the legitimate performance of all sensors. Very smart irrigation system works automatic and use the moisture sensor to systematically water the plants without human observation.Therefore, the main purpose of the work is to design the irrigation system, which provides all the above quality with the traditional feature available in irrigation system such as measuring moisture analysis of the area to prevent crop damage issues. Temperature is observed so that the surrounding temperature can be examined as the crop temperature is also sensitive.

It has resilience in controlling the irrigation system from anywhere in the Internet available world.Moreover, another benefit of this planned irrigation system is that it would give update of crops and alert the farmer before any unfavorableposition come in the farms.It will grow rapidly to control and monitor the smart irrigation.


Pushkar Singh and SanghamitraSaikiaintroduced the design and implementation of anArduino-Based Smart Irrigation System. The Arduino-based communication has been created toease the function, application, maintenance and the price.The device is fully automated and reliable. Sensors interact with the website communication system from a large distance in nanoseconds which makes the user more prolific. The entire system is based on the arduino which use inexpensive microcontroller;this system can be applied to large areas for relatively small investment.

S. Darshna, T.Sangavi, Sheena Mohan, A.Soundharya, SukanyaDesikan proposed Smart Irrigation System. In the current scenario, manually controlled irrigation method is used by the farmers, in which farmers sprinklethe land at systematic periods. The process depletes more water and the outcome is water loss. While dry areas have less rainfall and irrigation is challenging. Thus there is a need for an automated system that will accurately control and monitor the amount of water needed in the fields. Introducing IOT based smart irrigation system which preserves time and assures prudent uses of water. Furthermore, this design uses Esp8266 WiFi module and microcontroller which assure a rise in system life by diminishing power consumption.

Ravi Kishore Kodali and Borade Samar Sarjeraopresent the Low Cost Smart Irrigation System Using MQTTProtocol.Efforts have been made to make an easy water pump controller based on soil moisture sensor and are useful in the agriculture sector using Esp8266 NodeMCU-12E.Esp8266 NodeMCU-12E is inexpensive, uses a small microcontroller in size and consumes less power which makes the proposed system suitable for the given operation.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols provide system security. Soil moisture sensor is highly accurate which give analog readings and measures the value of soil moisture correctly. This mobile app and web page displays the soil moisture price and water pump state.

G.parameswaran And K.Sivaprasa introduce an Arduino Based Smart Drip Irrigation System Using Internet Of Things. This irrigation system gives better production than prior and water usage is limited.

Due to routine updates to the server and getting the proper knowledge of the system indefinitely, the production rate may also increase in some unusual circumstances. It mitigates the human work, power and cost. The server updates farmers about the nature of the crop area and everything else.

PriyankaPadalalu, SonalMahajan, KartikeeDabir, SushmitaMitkar and DeepaliJavale proposed Smart Water Dripping System for Agriculture. The presented model control and monitor accurately the water necessity in the field automatically. Smart irrigation system assures prudent use of water. This design uses a microcontroller which increases system life and curtails power consumption. This water dripping system has proposed a smart solution for proper utilization of water which is a very big problem in flourishing countries like India. The whole system is easy to operate by using the android system.


The artificial method of watering crops in farms is irrigation. In the current scenario, water shortage due to increased exploitation has urged to develop a new technology which can save water from wasting and since agriculture is the most cost-effective business, therefore there will be a smart way to check the loss of water in the irrigation system.

Pressure on existing water allocation has increased and the significance of water management has been raised for the sustainability of irrigated farming. The purpose of this idea is to make the irrigation system smart, autonomous and efficient, to optimize the water supply to the crops to decrease manal intervention. It observes soil, climate, dehydration conditions and plant water consumption and automated adjustment of the water schedule. Therefore, smart irrigation has become a major concern near the system so that a smart device can be given to the farmer who supports them in the production of quality crops.

Since India is an agriculture-based country and has plenty of water resources. But population expansion and over- utilization have led to a condition where the demand for water is exceeded then the supply. In the smart irrigation system, different types of sensors are used to make farmer updated about their land. Soil moisture, water flow, temperature and pH sensors are used to measure the water required by the area. A soil moisture sensor determines the moisture content in the field in order to forestall crops from water desertification problems and the temperature of the crops are monitored by the temperature sensor because crops are delicate towards temperature.Smart irrigation system warns farmers about the temperature of crops and provides instructions for using sprinklers to reduce the temperature, so it will save the farmers' money

along with crops. An attempt to create a system which can be operable from a longer distance, this can help farmers to monitor and control the area 24×7 during the whole year.Arduino has a microcontroller that controls the entire setup and an ESP8266wifi module is used to transmit and receive data.

Fig.2. Block Diagram of Smart irrigation system using ESP8266


Arduino microcontroller is the intellectual part of the system. It is an open source electronics platform in which complex electronics prototypes with hardware and software have been designed, developed and tested [10]. Arduino interacts with the user through a website, a server is created that can receive and transmit data to the website from the ESP8266 WiFi module (connect with the arduino microcontroller). Arduino ESP8266

server user.

To obtain a desired output, a correct algorithm is needed. There are following steps the algorithm consists of:

Step 1: Switch the power ON of the system that energies arduino microcontroller, sensors and other gadgets.

Step 2: Start the system, which includes sensors, ESP8266 Wi-Fi modules and user interfaces.

Step3: Interpret the system instruction from the configuration file and operate it according to the files.

Step 4: Read the data from the sensor and analyze the data to check whether the user needs to be alerted or monitored continuously.

Step 5: Transmit the data to the user using the ESP 8266 and wait for the user to respond.

Step 6: If the response is YES, analyze the irrigation pumps and sprinklers, toggle the state and save the current state in the system configuration file. A user can transmit distinct commands for the selection of irrigation pumps and sprinklers:

The sensors using this prototype are as follows :

A. pH Sensors:Crops soil required water to maintain the pH. A sensor called pH sensor is used for the measurement of nutrient contents in the soil.

B. Temperature Sensors:The resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) measure resistance and conversion factor are used to find the temperature. Higher the resistance implies higher the temperature. The range of the temperature is 0 110 degree Celsius and belongs to the LM35 series.

C. Soil Moisture Sensors:It is a low cost and user- friendly gadget, which is used to observe soil moisture value. A capacitance is used to evaluate dielectric permittivity of the encircling medium. The water content is the function of the dielectric permittivity in the soil. Dielectric permittivity and the water content of the soil is proportional to voltage created by the sensor. The average value is taken over the entire length of the sensor. Since different crops needed a different level of moisture so that productivity increases. By using soil moisture value, farmers should know about how much water is present on the farm so that water is provided accordingly .

D. Water pump:It is used to water the crops and the driver circuit operates it.

E. Servo motor:It manages to rotate from 0 180O and control the angular movement of the pipes to circulate water properly.

F. Power supply: 5V power supply is used.

G.ESP8266 WiFi Module:

Fig.3. ESP8266

This is a system on chip (SOC) and Wi-Fi networks that have software applications. The TCP/IP protocol is present in it and allowed the access to the Wi-Fi connectivity. It is capable of hosting an application or removing all Wi-Fi networking functions from any other application processor. Flash memory can start directly from an exterior move. Built-in cache memory will decrease memory requirement and supports upgrade system performance. Another situation is the wireless internet access that understands the function of the Wi-Fi adapter, it can add to any microcontroller- based design, easy connection due to the SCI / SDIO interface. It is a sophisticated device with a fine processing system and storage capacity. It integrates with GPIO ports sensor and other application specific machine, which is initially loading and at least during the runtime. ESP8266 require little external circuits due to highly integrated chip. The antenna switch and front-end module are included, which is designed to reduce the PCB area. The ESP8266 system supports the following features: Bluetooth interference, Energy saving VoIP applications and has auto-generated RF, this operating condition does not allow working with any external RF parts. The module has 3.3 V input voltage. It has 8 pins and these are 1 TXD and 1 RXD, 2 GPIO pins i.e. GPIO 0 and GPIO 2, RST (Reset), VCC and GND (Ground). This module is inexpensive and transforms the IOT method into a specific version.


H. Router:It is the networking machine invented to interpret, receive and transmit the data from one network to another. It performs the traffic directing function on the internet. A data packet is typically sent from one router to the other on the networks which authorize inter-networking before it enters its terminal node.

I. Voltage Regulator [AMS 1117-3.3] :

It is designed to provide a flexible and fixed voltage regulator up to 1A output and it has been operated on 5V input. The maximum guarantee of the device's dropout voltage is 1.3V, which decreases in low load currents. In order to limit the current and to reduce the stress under the overloading condition both the Power Source Circuitry and Regulatory are used. It has less current drop and turns5V, 0.7A into 3.3 V for the ESP8266 module.

J. Sofware [Arduino IDE]:

A sketch is programming code written in the Arduino IDE.This IDE is used to develop sketches for ESP8266 and has the following sections.

Text editor: The conventionalized version of C++ programming language is used to write the interpreted code.

Message section: This error shows and also gives a response to save and export code.

Text: Easy to display text output by Arduino IDE with full of error messages and other data.

Console Toolbar: This toolbar includes various buttons like verification, upload, new, open, save and use the development board and serial port in the bottom right corner of the serial monitor window.


When the system shutdown then process is closed,otherwise it will move more than the specified limit and switch on the alarm according to the moisture, temperature and other sensing elements.Similarly, to check and control the process it will display on the LCD display. This interpretation is done without any humanpowerand alarm automatically. It will enhance the proficient utilization of energy saving.

This technology can help in preserving water planning and irrigation timing which is prolonged to other analogous agricultural crops due to which this system is endorsed for efficient automated irrigation systems. To minimize te wastage of water, it is distributed systematically using a servo motor will ensure maximal absorption of the water by plant. Soil moisture and temperature are monitored according to the types of plants and water is delivered to the plants when it is needed.

This process controls the distribution of water and lessens the human work when used in a large agricultural area. Many of the system's features can be customized for the needs of a plant and properly installed by software.

The system can be designed by integrating a Webs caper which can forecast the climate and water the plants systematically.

If the rain is anticipated then low amount of water is needed for the plants and a GSM module can also be added to the system by which user can able to control the system via a smartphone. To measure

the amount of water delivered for the irrigation a water meter can be installed that gives cost estimation. The volume of water flow can be varied by using solenoid valve. Moreover, Wireless sensors can also work.

Fig.4. A webpage screen with the sensor data and controls


Currently, farmers control irrigation methodmanually and irrigate their area at a systematic period.These mechanisms deplete high amount of water and the outcome is water loss. While dry areas have less rainfall and irrigation is challenging.Therefore, ESP8266 Wi-Fi based communication system has been taken because of the ease of application, maintenance and price. The gadget is automated that will accurately monitor and control the water requirement and reliable. The communication through the websites authorizes the user to interact with sensors from anywhere in the world in nanoseconds which is fruitful for the user. Besides, this design uses ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and arduino microcontroller that diminish power consumption by ascending the system life and executes on large areas for relatively small investment.


[1] S. Darshna1, T.Sangavi, Sheena Mohan, A.Soundharya,Sukanya,Smart Irrigation System, IOSR-JECE, May Jun 2015.

[2] G. Parameswaran and K.Sivaprasath,Arduino Based Smart Drip Irrigation System Using Internet of Things, IJESC Volume 6 Issue No. 5.

[3] P. Singh and S. Saikia, Arduino-based smart irrigation usingwater flow sensor, soil moisture sensor, temperature sensor andESP8266 WiFi module, 2016 IEEE Region 10 HumanitarianTechnology Conference (R10-HTC), Agra, India, 2016, pp. 1-4.

[4] Ravi Kishore Kodali and Borade Samar Sarjerao, A Low Cost Smart Irrigation System Using MQTT Protocol, IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP), Cochin, India, 2017, pp. 1-5.

[5] PriyankaPadalalu, SonalMahajan, KartikeeDabir, SushmitaMitkarandDeepaliJavale, Smart Water Dripping System for Agriculture/Farming,2nd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT), Mumbai, India, 2017, pp. 659 662.

[6] K. Lekjaroen, R. Ponganantayotin, A. Charoenrat, S. Funilkul, U. Supasitthimethee and T. Triyason, IoT Planting: Watering system using mobile application for the elderly, 2016 International Computer Science and Engineering Conference (ICSEC), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2016, pp. 1-6.

[7] V. H. Andaluz, A. Y. Tovar, K. D. Bedøsn, J. S. Ortiz and E. Pruna, Automatic control of drip irrigation on hydroponic agriculture: Daniela tomato production, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Automatica (ICA-ACCA), Curico, 2016, pp. 1-6.

[8] V. V. h. Ram, H. Vishal, S. Dhanalakshmi and P. M. Vidya, Regulation of water in agriculture field using Internet Of Things, 2015 IEEE Technological Innovation in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR), Chennai, 2015, pp. 112-115.

[9] J. Shenoy and Y. Pingle, IOT in agriculture, 2016 3rdInternational Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), New Delhi, 2016, pp. 1456-1458.

[10] Rosley, Samad. Z, Shaari M.F., Rosley, M.A., Feasibility studies of Arduino microcontroller usage for IPMC actuator control, in IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), 2014, pp.101-106,28-30 Nov. 2014.

[11] Leo Louis, Working Principle of Andruino and Using It as a tool for study and research, International Journal of Control, Automation, Communication and Systems (IJCACS), Vol.1, No.2, April 2016.

[12] SaraswatiSaha; AnupamMajumdar. Data centre temperature monitoring with ESP8266 based Wireless Sensor Network and cloud based dashboard with real time alert system , 2017 Devices for Integrated Circuit (DevIC), 23-24 March, 2017, pp.307-310.

[13] PallaviRavindra Joshi1 and Prof. M S khan, IOT Based Smart Power Management System Using WSN, International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol: 04, Issue: 06, June -2017.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *