Hybrid Multi-Functional Implantable Biochip for Automated Drug Delivery in Human Body

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Hybrid Multi-Functional Implantable Biochip for Automated Drug Delivery in Human Body

Avinash Dilendra

Dept. of Information Technology

Aswathy I

Dept. of Geoinformatics

Mahesh Kumar Porwal

Prof. ECE Deptt

IIITM-K, Trivandrum, India

IIITM-K, Trivandrum, India

SITE, Nathdwara, India

avinash.dilendra@gmail.com

aswathy.mscgis3@iiitmk.ac.in

porwal5@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Abstract Modern day technology and future technologies need to be exploited for the benefit of human being. One of the areas in which the growth in technology can be fully utilized is the automated disease detection and drug delivery unit that can automatically monitor, diagnose and also provide medication to human being without human intervention. The life threatening diseases that destroy parts of human body are detected only when the patients reach the critical stage. Therefore, there exists a need to constantly monitor the parameters in human body and provide medication to cure diseases . There are several diseases that can affect human body and therefore there must be means to accurately detect the diseases and subsequently classify them. Diseases classified, need to be treated by the selection of suitable drugs. Selection of drug and quantity of drug to be diffused is based on patients history, age, weight, height and other body conditions. Drug selected based on all the parameters has to be diffused accurately with the use of an actuator. Drug diffusion needs to be controlled or monitored as it should not cause side effects. Thus the required drug to cure the identified disease should be targeted to specific locations. After the drug delivery, impact of drug on the disease detected and the causes of medication should be carefully monitored using sensors . This is one of the major challenges in an automated process. This research paper is an attempt towards design, modeling and analysis of an automated drug delivery unit that can be used to detect and deliver drug. The proposal is a miniaturized unit that can be used as a bio- chip. A biochip forms one of the prominent building blocks for automated drug delivery system.

Key words: Disease analyzer, biomedical systems, biomedical control, Medical application

I INTRODUCTION

The need of mankind today is ever increasing and it is necessary to support human life with reliable, affordable and sophisticated medical products. The advancements achieved in the fields of Electronics, Medical Signal Processing, Instrumentation and Automation have given us this hope and these have been made into reality through design and development of new devices that are considered as alternates. These devices support doctors and physicians by assisting and saving human life. Reliability and higher automation in medications have been achieved through miniaturization in devices. The modern needs to adhere to stricter and tougher regulatory norms have also ensured the medical fraternity to come out with alternatives. The need of the times is therefore in the design and development of automated drug delivery unit that would be beneficial to the common man. The ongoing discovery of newer forms of viruses in the human race that can

result in changed life styles necessitates steps required to be taken as precaution for any untowardness that can affect human body.

II PRINCIPLES OF BIOSENSORS AND DISEASE DETECTION

Oral and injection are the predominant methods of drug delivery. The limited means in drug delivery has impacted the progress of drug development. Most drugs have been formulated to accommodate the oral or injection delivery routes, which are not always the most efficient routes for a particular therapy. New drugs such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies that can minimize side effects and lead to better patient compliance The business needs are also driving the need for new and effective drug delivery methods. Innovative drug delivery systems may make it possible to use certain chemical entities or biologics that were previously impractical because of toxicities and due to their difficulties in drug administration. For example, drug targeting is enabling the delivery of chemotherapy agents directly to tumors, reducing systemic side effects. Research is continually on into investigating new ways to deliver macromolecules that facilitate the development of new biologic products such as bio blood proteins and bio vaccines. Similarly, the success of DNA and RNA therapies will also depend on innovative drug delivery techniques. The success of a drug is dependent on the delivery method. The efficiency of drug delivery to various parts of the body is directly affected by particle size. Nanostructure mediated drug delivery has the potential to enhance drug bioavailability, improve the timed release of drug molecules, and enable precision drug targeting. Nano scale drug delivery systems can be implemented within pulmonary therapies, as gene delivery vectors, 4 and in stabilization of drug molecules that would otherwise degrade too rapidly . Additional benefits of using targeted nano scale drug carriers are reduced drug toxicity and more efficient drug distribution. Anatomic features such as the blood brain barrier, the branching pathways of the pulmonary system, and the tight epithelial junctions of the skin make it difficult for drugs to reach specific target locations. Nanostructured drug carriers will help to penetrate or overcome these barriers to drug delivery. The advantages of nanostructure-mediated drug delivery are their ability to deliver drug molecules

directly into cells and the capacity to target tumors within healthy tissue. Nanostructured delivery architectures are promising candidates that will enable efficient and targeted delivery of novel drug compounds. Sustained drug release and intracellular entry capability are the properties of nanoscale drug delivery mechanisms that minimize side effects and allow for the direct treatment of the cause of the disease rather than the symptoms of the disease.

  1. Bio Sensors

    A biosensor is an analytical device incorporating a biological material that can detect biological or chemical analytes in solution or in the atmosphere with a physiochemical transducer that produces discrete or continuous electrical signals proportional to the analytes. A biosensor consists of Bioreceptor and Transducer . Figure 1.1 shows the working of a biosensor. The bioreceptor is a biomolecule that recognizes the target analyte (ex: enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids) and the transducers convert the recognition event into a measurable signal.

    Fig1: working of biosensor

    In this first enzyme electrode, an oxido-reductase enzyme, glucose oxidase, was held next to a platinum electrode in a membrane sandwich. The platinum anode polarized at + 0.6 V responded to the peroxide produced by the enzyme reaction with substrate. Biosensor technology couples our knowledge of biology with advances in microelectronics. A biosensor is composed of a biological component, such as a cell, enzyme or antibody, linked to a tiny transducer which is a device powered by one system that then supplies power (usually in another form) to a second system. Biosensors are detecting devices that rely on the specificity of cells and molecules to identify and measure substances at extremely low concentrations. Biosensors can, for example

    • measure the nutritional value, freshness and safetyof food

    • provide emergency room physicians with bedside measures of vital blood components

    • locate and measure environmental pollutants

    • detect and quantify explosives, toxins and bio warfare agents

    1. Types of Transducers used in Biosensors

      The following are the various types of transducers used in the biosensors

      • Conductimetric Transducer: It detects changes in conductivity between two electrodes

      • Piezoelectric Transducer: This transducer detects changes in mass

      • Thermal Transducer: It measures changes in temperature

      • Amperometric Devices: It detects changes in current. These devices measure currents generated when electrons are exchanged between a biological system and an electrode

      • Capacitive Transducer: When the biorecognition reaction causes a change in the dielectric constant of the medium in the vicinity of the bioreceptor, capacitance measurement method can be used as a transducer

      • Optical Transducer: Optical biosensors correlate changes in concentration, mass, or number of molecules to direct changes in the characteristics of light. For this method to work, one of the reactants or products of the biorecognition reaction has to be linked to colorimetric, fluorescent or luminescent indicator molecules. Usually, an optical fiber is used for guiding the light signals from the source to the detector. In the Intrinsic mode, the incident light passes through the sample and interacts directly with the sample

    2. Signal Transduction using Biosensors

      The biosensors are designed for providing an electrical signal usually in micro or milli volts for a given analytic such as glucose. Depending upon the characteristics of the analyte and its parameter, signal transduction is achieved. The parameters with which the signals are obtained are given in the following Table 1:

      Table 1. Analytes and Biomaterials

      Table 2 gives typical applications of different transducer systems. An example of detection process using an array of bio sensors with necessary hardware and configurable modules is shown in the

      Table 2. Biosensor Measurement Types and Applications

      Figure 2 The array of biosensors samples high volume of signal collection which is concentrated for the purpose of extraction of purified signal detection. The signals are then conditioned for transduction so as to analyze data retrieval for decision making through display.

    3. Automated Drug Delivery System

Automated disease detection and drug diffusion unit shown in Figure 1.3 consists of a biosensor implanted on a human being. The sensors detect the presence of virus or micro- organism in a human body. The electrical signal generated by the sensor output is used to control a drug diffusion

Figure 2. Bio Sensor System Modules with Appropriate Collection of Signals and Data Fusion

Pump that automatically diffuses required quantity of drug to the patient. Diseases in a human being are detected by the presence of sensors located at specific parts of the body. Sensors used within a human body interact with blood, tissues, DNAs and cells and detect the presence of specific antigen. Electrical signal generated by the sensor due to change in sensor property is measured and is used in detection of diseases

Figure 3. Automated Drug Diffusion Unit

The detected disease is classified and is used in selection of a drug from the drug storage cell. Appropriate drug selected based on disease detected and other human body conditions are diffused through an actuator or pump. The drug diffused is monitored and is diffused in a controlled manner to cure the disease.

Thus in this research work automated drug delivery unit with biosensors for disease detection, expert system based on neural network for disease classification and a PID control unit for drug delivery are integrated into a system to model automated drug delivery unit. This research work is an attempt in providing a feasible solution for disease detection and drug delivery unit. Figure 4 shows the block diagram of the proposed automated drug delivery system.

Figure 4. Block Diagram of the Proposed Automated Drug Delivery System

Multiple biosensors that can monitor one disease or multiple diseases are arranged in an array. Each sensor reacts to changes in biological conditions in a human being. The electrical signals generated by the sensors are captured and recorded. The expert system based on neural networks processes the stored data or the data captured using biosensors for classification. Disease classified is used in selection of drug and suitable drug is diffused in the body. A robust control unit or the controller logic monitors the sensor output, expert system output and controls the drug diffusion pump. The automated system consists of the following blocks:

Biosensors (Hardware) Disease sensing units with current/voltage output

Disease analyzer (Software) Data base consisting details of diseases and remedies

Master controller (Expert System – software) Disease analyzer and control unit to diffuse the drug as per the disease

Pump controller (Hardware) Controls the drug diffusion based on the inputs provided by master controller

Biosensors are the most critical unit in the system; they need to be accurate and durable. Sensitivity and specificity are the major parameters that quantify biosensors. Biological changes need to be detected and converted to electrical equivalent entity. Software routines to classify diseases need to be robust and should clearly distinguish between various diseases, nature of disease and intensity of diseases. The expert system design should accurately classify the signals detected and provide inputs to the control unit for drug diffusion. The controller unit should diffuse the required drug in a given time and need to monitor the diffusion process. The control unit not only controls the on and off of the pump but also monitors the diffusion action. A system that can perform the automated detection and diffusion processes is of great use in biomedical application domain

III SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS:

With the need for a sophisticated system such as automated drug delivery system that can be reliable and also be considered as an alternative to doctors during emergency. In the Indian context, with vast population and varied set of diseases occurring among its people, there is a need for a low cost, reliable and sophisticated unit for disease detection and drug diffusion. The system consists of three major parts: Biosensors, Expert System and Drug Diffusion with Control Unit. In order to develop a prototype model of automated drug delivery unit that can be embedded in human body at specific location, the system is miniaturized. Thus the systems is very small and perform its job as per the given specifications. In order to design, develop, model and simulate such a miniaturized model, there is a mathematical model that mimics the actual system. Biosensors necessary to detect diseases is of nanometer size and nanotechnology is essential to develop such sensors. In India nanotechnology is still an emerging domain, and very few companies of Defense Organizations are developing or have expertise in nanotechnology related to biosensor development. For the development of automated system compounded by non availability of a biosensor, development of mathematical models is essential and they can be used to analyze the properties of biosensors. These can be used in disease detection. Thus there is a need for development of mathematical models for nano bio Sensors for disease detection and development of a prototype model based on the mathematical models to analyze the performances of the automated system. Secondly, the disease classification problem is one of the most challenging aspects of automated disease detection process. There is a need for a robust and reliable expert sstem that can automatically reconfigure its logic and accurately classify the diseases and also provide inputs to the control unit for drug delivery. Thirdly, the control unit needs to be very fast in its response and also monitor the drug delivery process. Along with these three major components required for automated disease detection and drug delivery system, there is a

need for design and analysis of hardware and software models for biosensors, expert system and control unit.

IV FUTURE SCOPE OF THE WORK

This research work proposes a miniaturized nanotechnology based automated drug delivery unit based on biosensors for cancer detection. The mathematical models for biosensors, biosensor device simulations, embedded unit for decision making and drug delivery unit are modeled and analyzed for its performances and characteristics. Based on the developed models, a drug delivery unit is developed, software simulations of this unit is used for functional verification. The results obtained are validated with reference model. Biosensors that can detect presence of molecules that can be used in identifying cancer are mathematically modeled, simulated using standard nano device simulation tools. The results obtained are validated against standard reference. Designed biosensors are characterized for its performances for disease detection. New techniques for detecting multiple diseases based on the existing biosensors are being proposed, designed, modeled, and analyzed. Synthetic signals are modeled as equivalents to signals from biosensors, an embedded unit is designed to analyze these signals to find the disease and classify the diseases. Based on the disease classification, a control unit is activated to control the drug delivery unit as per the diseases detected. The work developed in this research, is a first towards automated drug delivery unit for multiple diseases.

V Conclusion

Population world over is rapidly increasing. Further due to global warming and changes in human behavior, mankind is prone to new diseases and new viruses. The number of patients being scanned for diseases is so large and providing treatment to all these patients is an expensive process and time consuming.

In general, diseases occurring are listed below:

  • Allergy

  • Autoimmune Diseases

  • Cancer

  • DNA, Paternity and Genetic disorders

  • Environmental Toxin

  • Fitness, Nutrition and Anti-Aging

  • Gastrointestinal Diseases Revealed

  • Heart Health

  • Hormones and Metabolism

  • Infectious Disease

Cancer constitutes one of the most dangerous diseases that has affected mankind and resulted in deaths of large number of people. Cancer care accounted for an estimated $104.1 billion in medical care expenditures in the United States. The coming years will see expenditures for cancer care increase at a faster rate than overall medical expenditure. As the population ages, the absolute number of people treated for cancer will increase faster than the overall population. Cancer prevalence will also increase relative to other disease categories even if cancer incidence rates remain constant or decrease. The costs are likely to increase as new, more

advanced, and more expensive treatments are adopted as standards of care

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