A Smart Street Lighting System using Solar Energy,

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A Smart Street Lighting System using Solar Energy,

Nagashree Shekar K C1 , Dr. L Sanjeev Kumar2.

PG Student, E&EE Department, SSIT, H.O.D E&EE Department, SSIT, Tumakuru, Karnataka, India. Tumakuru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract – The renewable energy source like solar energy powers a street lighting and reduces lots of stress on the conventional power grid, which results in moving towards a more intelligent power grid. The DC LED Street lights are powered by a photovoltaic (PV) source. The battery is used to store the excess energy of the solar panel, to discharge the stored energy during night time. The charge controller is used to protect a battery from over charging and to control the operation of overall system. The purpose of Smart Street light system is to reduce the power consumption. The street light will turn ON when there are movement of pedestrian or movement of vehicles on the road otherwise the lights will be switched OFF. Electrical parameters of solar panel are sensitive to accumulated dust density which reduce its efficiency. In order to make the system more efficient, a dust cleaning circuit is used to clean the PV panel whenever the dust accumulates on it.

Keywords- Solar Energy, PV Panel, DC LED Light, PIR sensor, Blower.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The power consumption, per capita increases for any developing country. India being the developing country its per capita consumption is also increasing, hence the requirement of power generation increases. However conventional type of power generation is not advisable as the fossil fuel is extinct. The urbanization increases the demand on power consumption, the main power is utilized and wasted in street lighting system of any city. Global trends in street lighting show that 18-38% of the total energy bill goes towards street lighting. In order to keep operational costs down, one sector that needs an urgent attention is street lighting. So need to give special focus on the street lights with smarter technologies. Solar power is being one smart technology for the street light system which helps to conserve the fossil fuels.

    The street lights are installed in most of cities, they are controlled and operated by the local municipalities. In almost urban or sub-urban or towns are still using a fluorescent lamps, CFL and high pressure mercury vapor lamps instead of LED, which may leads to increase in power consumption. The street lights consumes some unnecessary energy that could be used somewhere. Very often notice that the street lights stay on even when there is no movement of vehicles or pedestrians, this causes unnecessary wastage of energy. The main reason LED was chosen is to reduce the energy consumption as it

    lifetime. The solar power generation has become more viable with recent developments in Photovoltaic (PV) modules. This has made possible to work independently without depending on the grid based electricity. With all these, a smart street lighting system using solar energy will be implemented. For this, a motion sensing circuit and dust cleaning circuit are the two smart technologies needed. By using Passive Infrared sensor, the street light will be on when only there is road user (movement of vehicles or pedestrians) otherwise, it will turn off. This system can save a large amount of electricity or energy consumption compared to conventional street lights.

  2. COMPONENTS

    1. Main circuit

      The solar panel (PV panel) is a device which converts solar energy into electrical energy. This panel produces Direct Electrical Current. During daytime, the PV panel provides energy to charge the battery and during night time the battery provides power to the main load that is the street light. In order to prevent the battery from over charging during day time and to control the interaction between circuit elements, the charge controller is necessary. The main circuit consists of, PV panel, Charge controller, Battery and Load that is LED bulb.

      Fig. 1. Main Circuit

    2. Motion sensor

      The electronic sensor used to detect the movement of human being within a certain range of the sensor is called as Passive Infrared sensor. The reason behind using motion sensing circuit is used to reduce the power consumption in the main circuit. During early morning time, there is usually no need for street lights to be on, a motion sensor circuit would provide lots of savings in power.

      were very effective in lighting and low light decay in the

      Fig. 2. Motion Sensing Circuit

      From Fig.2, whenever a motion occurs the PIR sensor triggers the relay module to connect the charge controller with the street light. If it is night time, the light will be turned ON. If there is no motion in the night time the light will be turned off. Until the motion occur the light remains off. This results in conservation of energy and reduces electric bill in the field of street lighting.

    3. Dust cleaning circuit

    The other important circuit in our design is the dust cleaning circuit. If the dust is accumulated on the PV panel, the output of the PV panel decreases and the overall efficiency reduces. For example, if Dust accumulated for six months decreases the efficiency of the PV panel by 70% of its original value, so it is important to develop a solution that would reduce the impact of this highly important issue. The dust cleaning circuit has been divided into a number of stages: the short circuit current stage, the output voltage stage, the input power stage, and the blower stage. From the first two stages the output power of the PV panel can be calculated in Simulink, and then compared with the input power. The input power is taken from a Pyranometer signal. If the two quantities did not match and the Pyranometer is reading full-sun or near full sun reading, then a triggering signal will be sent to the blower to activate it.

    Fig. 3. SC Current Reading Stage Of A Dust Cleaning Circuit.

    Fig.3 shows how to obtain the value of the short circuit current of an operating system, which is then sent to the main control board, the Arduino MEGA 2560 Board. The Arduino board is an open source microcontroller programmable board, which can be easily programmed via Matlab, and was chosen in this project for its ease of use,

    every 10 minutes for a period of 1 second during which the short circuit current reading is sent to the Arduino board. During the shortening of the PV panel, the charge controller forces the battery to short as well, which can cause a problem. This, however, can be resolved by using the same signal to force an open-circuit across the batterys terminals while the PV panel is shorted, as shown in Fig.4.

    Fig.4. Battery Short Circuit Prevention Circuit.

    The input power is taken from the pyranometer's reading after multiplying it with the PV panel's efficiency and area. With all the previous quantities determined, Mat lab decides whether or not to trigger the relay in fig-5 for a certain period of time in order to blow away the dust.

    Fig.5. The

    Blower Stage Of The Dust Cleaning Circuit.

    The first analog input (top left) represents the short circuit current reading, which is converted to Amperes, and saved it in a memory location on the Arduino board. The lower portion represents the output voltage reading, and the conversion process to Volts. Both values of current and voltage are multiplied to yield the actual maximum power that the PV panel is able to produce. The lower left portion obtains the pyranometer's reading, and converts it into W/m², after multiplying it by the panel's effciency and area. The resulting value is then compared with the output power previously found. Depending on this comparison operation and by taking the maximum and minimum de- rate factors of dust into account, a signal is sent to the relay module responsible for triggering the blower. This signal will be sent if the two previous power quantities did not match AND the pyranometer was giving a non-cloudy reading. The upper right portion shows the pulse generator responsible for triggering the relay module that shorts the PV panel for 1 second every 10 minutes (while also open- circuiting the battery at that same second) to obtain the value of the short circuit current.

    and versatility. Matlab initiates a triggering signal once

    First of all, energy consumed in the system is calculated by incrementing a counter every time the motion sensor detects movements, and then multiplying the counter by the power rating of the light and by the amount of time during which the light the light is ON; that is, 20 seconds per each signal of the motion sensor, and the resultant consumed energy will be displayed after it has been converted to kWh. This is shown on the bottom right portion of Fig.6.

    Fig.6. Block Diagram Of A Simulink Code.

  3. SOLAR IRRADIANCE

    Fig.7 shows the solar radiation during 50 minutes of time on a cloudy day. As can be seen in the graph, there is a high amount of intermittency in the power received by the solar panel due to the effect of clouds constantly disrupting the availability of sun rays. Fig- 8 and 9 demonstrate the short circuit current and the output voltage of the PV panel, respectively, during fifty minutes of time on cloudy day.

    Fig.7. The Solar Irradiance During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Cloudy Day.

    Fig. 8. The Short Circuit Current of the PV Panel During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Cloudy Day.

    Fig.9. The Output Voltage of the PV Panel During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Cloudy Day.

    Fig.10 shows the irradiance on a sunny day. While there are a few short spikes due to sudden cloud shading, during which the power is significantly reduced, the amount of solar irradiance is relatively stable around 1000kW/m2, which is typical for a mostly sunny day. Fig.11 and 12 illustrate the short circuit current and the open circuit voltage during the same fifty minutes of time on a sunny day.

    Fig.10. The Solar Irradiance During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Sunny Day.

    Fig.11. The Short Circuit Current of the PV Panel During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Sunny Day.

    Fig.12. The Output Voltage of the PV Panel During Fifty Minutes of Time on a Sunny Day.

    As can be seen from the figures, during cloudy days, the amount of solar energy that we obtain is generally less than in the case of the sunny day. More importantly, however, the large amount of variation that can be seen in the voltage, current, and consequently the power, is mainly due to the constant variation in the amount of solar energy obtained during the cloudy day.

  4. EFFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEM

    An efficiency analysis can be conducted at any instance of time, especially when the blower is turned on. A comparison of efficiencies before and after the blower's operation can verify the adequacy of the blower, the accumulation amount, and the overall system response to dust. Fig-13 presents the flowchart of efficiency analysis that can be conducted by model base programming platform Simulink. It must be mentioned that the maximum theoretical efficiency limit for a PV panel is unlikely to be achieved, even in ideal conditions.

    The proposed system increases the efficiency of the PV panel by dealing with an external condition; that is dust, in order to achieve the maximum practical efficiency of the PV panel. To further enhance the efficiency of cleaning, more than one blower at several angles of the PV panel can be installed in order to effectively dispose of all remaining dust particles, taking all possible angles of the PV panel (with equidistant spacing) into account.

    Fig. 13. Flowchart of efficiency analysis programming on Mat lab Simulink.

  5. CONCLUSION

    A smart street lighting system in which a conventional street light is modified to obtain its power from solar energy. Additional features were added that improve the operation of the system either by reducing the overall power consumption, which is achieved by using a motion sensor or by using a dust cleaning circuit, which constantly keeps the efficiency of the panel at a certain maximum value. Matlabs Simulink, the same program that controls the operation of the system, illustrates output power, output voltage, and short circuit current during real time, as well as calculating the energy consumed by the DC lights.

  6. FUTURE SCOPE

This can be made more efficient in future by using; (1) Horizontal and Vertical wipers to clean the PV panel properly. (2) Water Blower, which works after the function of wipers, this will increase the efficiency of the panel in generation.

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