Design and Evaluation of a Raw Water Treatment Chamber using Locally Available Materials

Design and Evaluation of a Raw Water Treatment Chamber using Locally Available Materials
Authors : Awofadeju, Ayinde Samuel, Akanni. Ayotunde Oluyemisi
Publication Date: 13-08-2014


Author(s):  Awofadeju, Ayinde Samuel, Akanni. Ayotunde Oluyemisi

Published in:   International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Website: www.ijert.org

Volume/Issue:   Vol. 3 - Issue 7 (July - 2014)

e-ISSN:   2278-0181


Viable technology has to be developed to meet the increasing demand for quality water particularly in thickly populated, industrialized and economically viable society. In this research work, Periwinkle shells, Palm kernel shells, and Coconut shells were used to design a filter bed with Periwinkle shell of 0.20m size of a nut shell and 65m depth, a Palm kernel shell of 0.25m size of nut shell and 65m depth and a Coconut shell of 0.35m size of the nut shell and 30m depth was used for raw water treatment for rural communities. The coconut shells and palm kernel shell were separated from their materials, dried out under sun for 12 hours, while the periwinkle shell was sorted out to remove those that have spoilt. The obtained dry shells were crushed to desired size, washed, drain excess water, dry in an oven and sieve manually in a mechanical sieve shaker. Acidity test, sieve analysis, flow rate test and water analysis were carried out to determine the suitability of this local material to treat water for drinking. The result of the acidity test showed that the palm kernel shells and coconut shells met the specification and suitable to be used for filter bed material but that of periwinkle failed to meet the recommended specification i.e its weight is less than10% of the original weight. The results showed the filter water sample meet the WHO’s standards requirement and zero CFU/100ml for the total coliforms and E.coli. Flow rate of the effluent water from the design nut shell filtration chamber yield an average of 30l/hr, which means that the nut shell filter could provide an adequate supply of drinking water for a typical household in the rural area. Based on the result of the study, the effective removal of total coliforms, reduction of turbidity and high flow, the nut shells filtration chamber could be recommended as a technology to be adopted on large scale treatment of water in rural area.


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